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Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change IPCC Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation Special Report 2011 Andrew Williams Jr Email: aj@trn.tv Mobile: +1-424-222-1997 Skype: andrew.williams.jr http://andrewwilliamsjr.biz http://twitter.com/AWilliamsJr http://slideshare.net/andrewwilliamsjr

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  • 1. Renewable Energy Sources and ClimateChange MitigationSpecial Report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate ChangeClimate change is one of the great challenges of the 21st century. Its most severe impacts may still be avoided if efforts are made to transformcurrent energy systems. Renewable energy sources have a large potential to displace emissions of greenhouse gases from the combustion offossil fuels and thereby to mitigate climate change. If implemented properly, renewable energy sources can contribute to social and economicdevelopment, to energy access, to a secure and sustainable energy supply, and to a reduction of negative impacts of energy provision on theenvironment and human health.This Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) impartially assesses the scientifi c literature on thepotential role of renewable energy in the mitigation of climate change for policymakers, the private sector, academic researchers and civil society.It covers six renewable energy sources bioenergy, direct solar energy, geothermal energy, hydropower, ocean energy and wind energy as wellas their integration into present and future energy systems. It considers the environmental and social consequences associated with the deploymentof these technologies, and presents strategies to overcome technical as well as non-technical obstacles to their application and diffusion. Theauthors also compare the levelized cost of energy from renewable energy sources to recent non-renewable energy costs.The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the leading international body for the assessment of climate change. It was establishedby the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) to provide the world with a clearscientifi c view on the current state of knowledge on climate change and its potential environmental and socio-economic impacts.

2. Renewable Energy Sources and ClimateChange MitigationSpecial Report of the IntergovernmentalPanel on Climate ChangeEdited byRamn Pichs MadrugaCo-Chair Working Group IIICentro de Investigaciones de laEconoma Mundial (CIEM)Ottmar EdenhoferCo-Chair Working Group IIIPotsdam Institute for ClimateImpact Research (PIK)Youba SokonaCo-Chair Working Group IIIAfrican Climate Policy Centre,United Nations EconomicCommission for Africa (UNECA)Kristin SeybothPatrick EickemeierPatrick MatschossGerrit HansenSusanne KadnerSteffen SchlmerTimm ZwickelChristoph von StechowTechnical Support Unit Working Group IIIPotsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (PIK) 3. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESSCambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town,Singapore, So Paulo, Delhi, Tokyo, Mexico CityCambridge University Press32 Avenue of the Americas, New York, NY 10013-2473, USAwww.cambridge.orgInformation on this title: www.cambridge.org/9781107607101 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change 2012This publication is in copyright. Subject to statutory exceptionand to the provisions of relevant collective licensing agreements,no reproduction of any part may take place without the writtenpermission of Cambridge University Press.First published 2012Printed in the United States of AmericaA catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.ISBN 978-1-107-02340-6 HardbackISBN 978-1-107-60710-1 PaperbackCambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or accuracy of URLsfor external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in this publication and does notguarantee that any content on such Web sites is, or will remain, accurate or appropriate. 4. vContentsSection ISection IISection IIISection IVForeword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . viiiPreface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ixSummary for Policymakers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3Technical Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27Chapter 1 Renewable Energy and Climate Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .161Chapter 2 Bioenergy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .209Chapter 3 Direct Solar Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .333Chapter 4 Geothermal Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .401Chapter 5 Hydropower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .437Chapter 6 Ocean Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .497Chapter 7 Wind Energy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .535Chapter 8 Integration of Renewable Energy into Present and Future Energy Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .609Chapter 9 Renewable Energy in the Context of Sustainable Development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .707Chapter 10 Mitigation Potential and Costs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .791Chapter 11 Policy, Financing and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .865Annex I Glossary, Acronyms, Chemical Symbols and Prefi xes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .953Annex II Methodology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .973Annex III Recent Renewable Energy Cost and Performance Parameters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1001Annex IV Contributors to the IPCC Special Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023Annex V Reviewers of the IPCC Special Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1033Annex VI Permissions to Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1051Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1059 5. viiForeword and Preface I 6. ForewordForewordviiiThe IPCC Special Report on Renewable Energy Sources and Climate Change Mitigation (SRREN) provides acomprehensive review concerning these sources and technologies, the relevant costs and benefi ts, and their potentialrole in a portfolio of mitigation options.For the fi rst time, an inclusive account of costs and greenhouse gas emissions across various technologies and scenariosconfi rms the key role of renewable sources, irrespective of any tangible climate change mitigation agreement.As an intergovernmental body established in 1988 by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and the UnitedNations Environment Programme (UNEP), the IPCC has successfully provided policymakers over the ensuing period withthe most authoritative and objective scientifi c and technical assessments, which, while clearly policy relevant, neverclaimed to be policy prescriptive. Moreover, this Special Report should be considered especially signifi cant at a timewhen Governments are pondering the role of renewable energy resources in the context of their respective climatechange mitigation efforts.The SRREN was made possible thanks to the commitment and dedication of hundreds of experts from various regionsand disciplines. We would like to express our deep gratitude to Prof. Ottma

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