Instrumentation by shubham 303853

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  • 1. MEASUREMENTMEASUREMENT IS THE ACT OR RESULT OFCOMPARISON BETWEEN A GIVEN QUANTITYAND A STANDARD QUANTITY CHOSEN AS AUNIT OR IN SIMPLE WORDS MEASUREMENT ISTHE PROCESS OF COMPARING KNOWNQUANTITY WITH THE UNKNOWN QUANTITY.

2. EXAMPLE OF MEASUREMENT You can measure how long things are, or howtall, or how far apart they are. Those are are allexamples of length measurements. Example: This fork is 20 centimeters longHERE WE ARE COMPARING A UNKNOWN QUANTITY(FORK LENGTH) WITH A KNOWNQUQNTITY(SCALE) 3. TYPES OF MEASUREMENTTypically measurements fall into two categoriesDIRECT MEASUREMENTINDIRECT MEASUREMENT 4. DIRECT MEASUREMNT IN DIRECT METHOD OF MEASUREMENT THE QUANTITY UNDERMEASUREMENT IS DIRECTLY MEASURED BY USING A INSTRUMENT FOR EXAMPPLE MEASUREMENT OF CURRENT BYAMMETER,MEASUREMENT OF VOLTAGE BY VOLTMETER OR MEASURING LENGTH OF FORK BY USING SCALE. 5. INDIRECT MEASUREMNTIN INDIRECT METHOD OF MEASUREMENT THE QUANTITY UNDERMEASUREMENT IS MEASURED INDIRECTLY BY USING KNOWN QUANTITY RELATED TO IT.FOR EXAMPPLE RESISTANCE CAN BE MESURED BY USING VOLTAGE AND AMMETERFOR EX:-RESISTANCE=VOLTAGE/CURRENT 6. INSTRUMENTAN INSTRUMENT IS A DEVICE THAT PERFORM THE ACTION OF MEASUREMENT BYUSING SOME CIRCUITRY.FOR EX AMMETER, VOLTMETER, OHMMETERAMMETER VOLTMETER 7. CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATIONSYSTEMANALOG SYSTEMDIGITAL SYSTEM 8. CLASSIFICATION OF INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEMANALOG SYSTEM-ANALOG FUNCTION MAY BE DEFINED ASCONTIONIOUS FUNCTION.IT IS A SYSTEM WHICH IS USED FORMEASUREMENT OF INFORMATION IN ANALOG FORM IS CALLEDANALOG SYSTEM.DIGITAL SYSTEM-DIGITAL FUNCTION MAY BE DEFINED AS DISCRETEOR CONTIONIOUS PULSES.IT IS A SYSTEM WHICH IS USED FORMEASUREMENT OF INFORMATION IN DIGITAL FORM IS CALLEDDIGITAL SYSTEM. 9. BLOCK DIAGRAM OF MEASUREMENT SYSTEMDISPLAYTRANDUCERSIGNALAMPLIFIEROR READ CONDITIONER OUTPOWERSUPPLY 10. TRANSDUCERA TRANSDUCER IS A DEVICE THAT CONVERTS ONE FORMOF ENERGY TO ANOTHER. ENERGY TYPES INCLUDES (BUTARE NOT LIMITED TO)ELECTRICAL,MECHANICAL OR ANYDEVICE WHICH CONVERTS ENERGY CAN BE CONSIDEREDA TRANSDUCER.TRANSDUCER ARE WIDELY USED INMEASURING INSTRUMENT. 11. SOME COMMON EXAMPLE OF TRANSDUCERA MICROPHONE CONVERTS SOUNDS TOVOLTAGE. LDR CONVERS BRIGHTNESS OF LIGHTINTO RESISTANCE. VARIABLE RESISTANCE CONVERTPOSITION TO RESISTANCE.THERMISTOCONVERT TEMPRATURE TORESISTANCE. 12. TYPES OF TRANSDUCERACTIVE TRANSDUCERPASSIVE TRANSDUCER 13. ACTIVE TRANSDUCERDefinition an active transducer is defined as atransducer which generates its own electrical voltageduring conversion. It does not require any externalbattery supply for its working.Examples Solar cell when it is exposed to strong sunlight orany other light, it converts light energy intoproportional DC voltage. 14. PASSIVE TRANSDUCERDefinition passive transducer is defined as thetransducer which requiresexternal battery voltage tooperate. Also it only changes its parameter likechange in resistance or capacitance duringconversion.Examples LDR (Light Dependent Resistor) when LDR isexposed to light, its resistance decreases (less than10W) proportionally & when it is dark its resistance isvery high (several MW). 15. SIGNAL CONDITIONINGSIGNAL CONDITIONING IS USED TO PREAPARE THE TRANSDUCERSOUTPUT TO A MEASURABLE FORM.THE OUTPUT OF TRANSDUCER MAYBE TOO SMALL OR DISORTED ONE.WHICH MAY BE DIFFICULT TO BEOBSERVED.TO REMOVE THIS DIFFICULTY SIGNAL CONDITIONING IS USED TYPES OF SIGNAL CONDITIONERAC SIGNAL CONTIONING DC SIGNAL CONDITIONING 16. POWER SUPPLYA power supply is a device that supplies electricpower to an electrical load. The term is most commonlyapplied to electric power converters that convert oneform of electrical energy to another, though it may alsorefer to devices that convert another form of energy(mechanical, chemical, solar) to electrical energy.A regulated power supply is one that controls the outputvoltage or current to a specific value; the controlledvalue is held nearly constant despite variations in eitherload current or the voltage supplied by the powersupplys energy source. 17. DISPLAY OR READ OUTA display device is an output device for presentationof information in visualor tactile form.When the input information is suppliedas an electrical signal, the display is called an electronic display.Digital clocks display changing numbers.The digital display of a calculating machine.Segment displaysThe segments are usually single LEDs or liquid crystals. They are mostly usedin digital watches and pocket calculators There are several types: Seven-segment display(most common, digits only) Fourteen-segment displaySixteen-segment display Sixteen-segment display HD44780 LCD controllerwidely accepted protocol for LCDs.