inspiration architecture: the future of libraries
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DESCRIPTIONPeter Morville's keynote for Internet Librarian International in London.
1 Peter Morville, Internet Librarian International, 2013
Design for Discovery
Peter Morville & Jeffery Callender
5 “I say we fight for and maintain our very long-term and hard-won connection to books and what they represent.” Joseph Janes
The structural design of shared information environments.
The organization, labeling, search, and navigation systems in websites and intranets.
Fragmentation Fragmentation into multiple sites, domains, and identities is clearly a major problem. Users don’t know which site to visit for which purpose.
Findability Users can’t find what they need from the home page, but most users don’t come through the front door. They enter via a web search or a deep link, and are confused by what they find. Even worse, most never use the Library, because its resources aren’t easily findable.
1. One Library
2. Core Areas
3. Network Intelligence
Interfaces • Portal • Search • Object • Set • Page
Caveats • Visual Design • Starting Point
13 Source: Search Patterns (2010)
Search is a Complex, Adaptive System
“Give me a fulcrum and a place to stand, and I will move the world.”
Web Governance Board
20 Technology + Pedagogy�
“When I was playing baseball, most of the time I wasn’t playing full-scale, four bases, nine innings. I was playing
a perfectly suitable junior version of the game...But when I was studying those shards of math and history, I wasn’t playing a junior version of anything. It was like batting practice
without knowing the whole game. Why would anyone want to do that?”
The MOOCs must first compete with nonconsumption by meeting demand outside the
schools (e.g., developing countries,
home-schooling) and then within (e.g., letting students take courses
not offered by their district).
Later, this self-paced, student-centered model may gain
sufficient momentum to become the dominant paradigm.
The Architecture of a Class
Regardless of all the time and effort libraries put into providing a variety of research tools and resources on their websites, the literature suggests that students still prefer to start their research using Google or some other form of search engine.
It is clear that there is an overwhelming preference for easy to use, familiar search tools that transcend education level, discipline of study, and student demographics.
Discovery Layers and the Distance Student Jessica Mussell (2012)
Strengths • Fast, easy, familiar • Cross-disciplinary searching • Links to citing and related articles
Weaknesses • No “advanced search” functionality • Limited, inaccurate metadata • Inconsistent coverage across disciplines • No transparency (coverage, algorithms, usage, monetization)
• Not customizable or interoperable
Employers claimed that college hires rarely conducted the thorough research required of them in the workplace.
At worst, some college hires solved problems with a lightning quick Google search, a scan of the first couple of pages of results, and a linear answer finding approach.
“I had a new graduate hire who only searched for papers on Google. I said, you’re missing things, you need to use PubMed, and he responded, ‘Well, I did this quick search, and that’s what I got.’ But that’s not good enough.”
Project Information Literacy: Learning Curve by Alison J. Head (2012)
30 Key Strategic Insights for Libraries, Publishers, and Societies by Roger C. Schonfeld (2010)
Faculty rate importance of library roles
“The academic library is increasingly being disintermediated from the discovery process, risking irrelevance in one of its core functional areas.”
Federated “Bento Box”
Gross and Sheridan conducted a usability study that examined how Summon (“web-scale discovery”) was used for common library search tasks.
Summon was positioned as the primary search box on the library’s home page for the study.
They found that the single search box was employed for 80% of the assigned tasks.
How Users Search the Library from a Single Search Box Lown, Sierra, Boyer (2013)
Use of full-text online content dramatically increased in the year following implementation.
Librarians found they could focus instruction less on choosing a database or catalog and more on refining a search, research as an iterative process, and other high level search skills.
The Impact of Serial Solutions’ Summon on Information Literacy Instruction
Stephanie Buck and Margaret Mellinger (2011)
Faculty (Profile, Publications)
Course (Course Pack, LMS)
Resource (Article, Book)
Borrow Direct (Ivy League)
HathiTrust (Shared Repository)
Portal (Library Facilities, Services)
WorldCat (Libraries Worldwide)
Web (Free, Fee)
* source may be path or destination
Search as a Service
63% didn’t use any Internet resources, other than the Guide, to complete their assignment.
Embedding LibGuides into Course Management Systems
Stephanie Brown (2012) GO
History of Science: Nature on Display
Embeddable Search Widget
ArtifactsVisible organizational structures and processes (hard to decipher)
Strategies, goals, philosophies, justifications
Unconscious, taken for granted beliefs, perceptions, thoughts, feelings (source of values, action)
Three Levels of Culture
The ability the find,
evaluate, create, organize,
and use information from
myriad sources and media.
“70 percent of humans experience severe back pain…and in the U.S. this results in tens of thousands of
surgeries each year.”
“There’s a secret about MRIs and back pain: the most common problems physicians see on MRI and attribute to back pain – herniated, ruptured, and bulging
discs – are seen almost as commonly on MRIs of healthy people without back pain.”
Why is Medicine a Mess?
• Our minds/bodies are complex.
• Patients want a quick fix.
• Doctors hate saying: “I don’t know.”
• The AMA is an advocacy group.
• Relentless and insidious advertising.
• Industry-funded research.
• $2.7 trillion per year.
“There are a thousand hacking at the branches of evil to
one who is striking at the root.” Henry David Thoreau
“Our government is corrupt. Not corrupt in any criminal sense. But corrupt in a perfectly legal sense: special interests bend the levers of power to benefit them at the expense of the rest of us.”
48 The relationship between information and culture
“It is now my suggestion that many people may not want information, and that they will avoid using a
system precisely because it gives them information…If you have information, you must first read it…You must then try to understand it…Understanding the information
may show that your work was wrong, or may show that your work was needless…Thus not having and not using information can often lead to less trouble and pain than
having and using it.”
Calvin Mooers (1959)
The limits of information
50 “We shape our buildings. Thereafter, they shape us.”
51 The order of food influences choice by as much as 25 percent.
Some habits have
the power to start
a chain reaction. “Success doesn’t depend on getting every single thing right, but instead relies on identifying a few key priorities and fashioning
them into powerful levers.”
“Willpower is the single most
important keystone habit for
Paul O’Neil as CEO of Alcoa
“I want to talk to you about worker safety…I intend to make Alcoa the
safest company in America.
I intend to go for zero injuries.”
“We killed this man. It’s my failure of
leadership. I caused his death. And it’s the failure of all of you in the chain of command.”
“A culture of generosity.” Josie Parker, Ann Arbor District Library
“A library, like a national park, teaches us that we all benefit when our most valuable treasures are held in common.”
Peter Morville, Inspiration Architecture
A central stone at the summit of an arch locking the whole together.
60 Polar bears are a keystone species in the Arctic ecosystem.
The library is a keystone of culture.
“A library outranks
any other one thing a
community can do to
benefit its people. It is
a never failing spring
in the desert.”
63 “Too many people think that we don’t need libraries when we have the Internet.” John Palfrey, DPLA (2012)
The library is an act of inspiration architecture.
65 IA Therefore I Am Inspiration Architecture by Peter Morville
“When we try to pick out anything by itself, we find it hitched to
everything else in the universe.” John Muir