history of design overview of movement and designers notes copy

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  • 1. History of design

2. Industrial Revolution18th-19th Century
Major changes in manufacturing, mining, agriculture, and transport.
Spread throughout Europe, North America, and eventually the world.
Influenced almost every aspect of daily life.
Resulted in the manufacture of machinery, tools, textiles, chemicals, and glass.
3. Arts and Crafts Movement
The Arts and Crafts Movement began primarily as a search for authentic and meaningful styles for the 19th century and as a reaction to "soulless" machine-made production aided by the Industrial Revolution.
Those involved believed in the equality of all the arts and the importance and pleasure of work.
Considering the machine to be the root cause of all repetitive and mundane evils, some of them turned entirely towards handcraft, which made their products expensive and affordable only by the rich.
4. Arts and Crafts Principles
The Arts and Crafts principle was to expose the natural qualities of the materials used and the construction of the object.
This principle was in opposition to the previous Victorian styles and methods which were ornate and artificial.
They were in favour of the master craftsman, who created all the parts of an item and assembled and finished it, with help from apprentices.
Decanter by Charles Ashbee.
5. Crafts designers often used patterns inspired by British flora and fauna.
They were propelled to extol the virtues of the traditions of the British countryside.
Many of those involved set up workshops in rural areas and revived old techniques.
Ampelopis Desk by Zulma Steele, circa 1904.
6. In Ireland, the Honan Chapel, located in Cork, Ireland, on the grounds of University College Cork, built in 1916 is internationally recognised as representative of the Irish Arts and Crafts movement
7. William Morris -1834-1896
Writer, designer and central figure of the Arts & Crafts Movement.
William Morris was a passionate socialist who wanted to improve the lives of the poor , through a return to traditional craftsmanship.
Red House, was built by Phillip Webb to designs by Webb and Morris.

  • When he couldn't find satisfactory furnishings for, The Red House, Morris developed the idea of forming a collective to produce such designs.

9. He founded a company William Morris & Co that manufactured tapestries, furniture and stained glass.Red House was the first serious attempt to apply artto the practical objects of common life.
It featured ceiling paintings, wall-hangings and furniture designed by Morris and worked by him and his wife.
10. Art Nouveau
The origins of Art Nouveau can be found in the work of William Morris.
1985,Czech artist Alphonse Mucha, produces a poster for a play entitled Gismonda.
11. LExpositionUniverselle, Paris, 1900
12. Art Nouveau
Focused on curved lines also known as whiplash lines and used more naturalistic themes in its composition.
Influenced by Japanese prints, Gothic architecture and the Artist William Blake.
Effects can be seen in the streets of Paris....
13. 14. Charles Rennie MackintoshGlasgow 1868-1928
Mackintosh preferred the strength of the rectilinear line.
Interestingly, he also used patterns from sources such as the Irish Book of Kells (800AD)
15. House for an Art Lover, 1986
16. Mackintosh, Bedroom Furniture
17. Hill House Furniture
18. Bauhaus, The International Style,Germany,1920s
Arts and Crafts
Both movements concerned with uniting arts and crafts and the role of the artist as a worker.
Both dedicated to beautiful design and well made work.
The original Arts and Crafts movement largely rejected the machine age and all its productions.
Both movements agreed that their times were aesthetically impoverished and both agreed that this was largely the result of the rise of industrial civilization
The early Arts and Crafts Movement, hoped for a return to an idealized past.
Influenced by Arts and Crafts movement that there should be no distinction between form and function.
Notable absence of ornamentation.
The importance of industrialized production and its aesthetic effects was a central question for both movements, but this was also the main point on which they disagreed.
the Bauhaus embraced the industrial atmosphere of its time and attempted to transcend it..
The Bauhaus, coming later, recognized the necessity (and the value) of accepting the fact and making the most of it.