history of american conservation movement

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History of American Conservation Movement. Environmental History Tribal Era. Native Americans: Hunters & Gatherers Depleted renewable resource and moved on. Deep respect for the resource Low Ecological Impact Low population Limited technology Low affluence High stewardship. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Environmental Science

History of American Conservation Movement

Environmental HistoryTribal EraNative Americans: Hunters & GatherersDepleted renewable resource and moved on. Deep respect for the resourceLow Ecological ImpactLow population Limited technologyLow affluenceHigh stewardship

Environmental HistoryFrontier Era ( 1607-1890): Westward expansion: Taking over of a continent

Infinite ResourcesWilderness was the embodiment of evilIt needs to be conquered Manifest Destiny 1845 Manifest Destiny: The pervasive belief in American cultural (Christianity) and racial superiority Andrew Jackson: Trail of Tears

Conservation Movement in AmericaThe Early Conservation Movement 1832-1960George Perkins Marsh Man and Nature published in 1864 voices concerns about the poor use of natural resources

Easter Island Population in 1400 AD 15 20k 1. Depleted forest ecosystem 2. Soil erodes & becomes infertile3. Lack of suitable soil promotes famine 4. Disease, famine, war destroyed the civilizationPopulation in 1722 AD 2-3k

Environmental HistoryFrontier Era ( 1607-1890): Westward expansion: Taking over of a continent

1890 the frontier is closed 1891 Forest Reserve Act1892 Yellowstone 1st National Park T. Roosevelt 01-09Golden Age of Conservation

Conservation Movement in AmericaThe Early Conservation Movement 1870-1930PreservationistJohn Muir President Sierra Club (1892) Nature deserves to exist for its own sake - regardless of degree of usefulness to humans. (Biocentric Preservation)Idea led to the Wilderness Act of 1964

Conservationist Gifford Pinchot-First Chief Forester(1905)Greatest good for the greatest number for the longest time Teddy Roosevelt26th President 1901-09The Antiquities Act of June 8, 1906 allowed Roosevelt and his successors to proclaim "historic landmarks, historic or prehistoric structures, and other objects of historic or scientific interest" in federal ownership as national monuments.Hetch Hetchy Debate

Modern Environmental Movement 1960-2004The industrial expansion after WW II added new concerns to the environmental agenda.Rachel Carson awakened the public to the environmental threat posed by pesticides (DDT)in her book Silent Spring (1962)Ecosystem concept: wildlife & quality of air, water

Conservation movement in America7Conservation movement in AmericaModern Environmental Movement 1960-2004

1970s The Environmental Decade The field of ecology emerges Earth Day 4-20-1970First Ecology FlagEPA established 1970 Endangered species act -1973Federal Land Policy & Management Act -1978Sagebrush rebellion Superfund-1980Love Canal Conservation movement in AmericaModern Environmental Movement 1960-20041980s Environmental Backlash Farmers, ranchers, leaders of natural resource industries strongly opposed many environmental laws. Ronald Reagan increased use of public lands, cut federal funding for energy conservation, relaxed air and water quality standards Wise-use movement: weaken or repeal environmental laws & policies Important Environmental Legislation 1906 : Antiquities Act: first law to protect cultural or natural resource. Gave the President the power to declare landmarks, structures or objects of historical or scientific importance as National Monuments. Grand Canyon is an example1916: National Park Act: Parks are to be maintained in a manner that leaves them unimpaired for future generations. Wilderness Act of 1964: Authorized the protection of undeveloped public lands. Endangered Species Act of 1973: Provides for the conservation of ecosystems upon which threatened or endangered species of fish, wildlife, and plants depend.