Herbs and Health Foods

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    PRESENTED BY:-

    NIRMAL SINGH

    PARMJEET KAUR

    B.PHARMA 8TH

    SEM

    HERBS ND HE LTH FOOD

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    Herbs and health food

    Herbs are used to alleviate human illness and for

    the maintenance of general health.

    Health food may be defined as the food

    supplemented with herbal ingredients, vitamins,

    minerals and nutrients isolated from conventional

    food.

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    NUTRACEUTICALS It is any substance that can be considered as a

    food or its part which, in addition to its normal

    nutritional value, provides health benefitsincluding prevention of disease or prevention of

    health.

    They are associated with prevention or treatment

    of disease like hypertension, cancer, diabetes and

    heart disease.

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    The food product used as nutraceuticals

    contain antioxidants, prebiotics, probiotics,

    omega 3 fatty acids and certain dietary

    fibers.

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    ANTIOXIDANTS

    They are also called as inhibitors of oxidants.

    They are the compounds which retard or prevent

    the oxidation and prolong the life of oxidizable

    matter.

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    MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIOXIDANTS

    Reactive oxygen molecules circulating in the body

    Tend to react with electrons of other molecules of

    body and various enzyme

    Result, molecules as well as enzymes are damage

    which leads to cytotoxicity.

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    It has been observed that the presence of free radicals

    causes cytotoxicity, alteration of enzymes and

    nucleic acid and peroxidation of lipids which results

    in loss of cell membrane integrity which initiates the

    aging process before time.

    Naturally occurring antioxidants are superoxide

    dismutase, tocopherols, ascorbic acid, lectoferrin,

    carotenoids and other plant pigments.

    They are present in fixed oils, fruits, vegetables and

    fishes.

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    PROBIOTICS:

    They are living microorganisms which improvethe intestinal microbial balance.

    Example: Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillisspecies.

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    PREBIOTICS:

    They are the substances which reach to colon in

    intact form i.e. with getting depleted by gastric

    pH and digestive acids.

    They also promote the growth of colonic

    probiotic bacteria, hence they are act as fertilizers

    for these symbiotic bacteria. Example: Inulin.

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    POLYUNSATURATED FATTY ACIDS:

    The natural vegetable oils and marine animal oils

    containing polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    They help to reduce cholesterolformation/deposition and prevention

    thromboxane formation.

    Useful as preventive measure for atherosclerosis.

    Example: Corn oil, Mustard oil etc.

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    OMEGA 3 FATTY ACID:

    They are eicosapentaenoic acid and doco-sa-

    hexaenoic acid. They are polyunsaturated essential fatty acids

    mainly of marine origin.

    They are present in cold water fishes life Cod,Salmon, Cold weather bean oil plants like flax

    seed and canola.

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    They are useful for :

    Increase the physiochemical stability andfunctional integrity of cell wall.

    Suppression of smooth muscle cell proliferationand migration.

    Reduction of LDL and VLDL levels.

    Reduction in thromboxane formation andincreased fibrinolysis.

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    DIATARY FIBRES:

    They are used in Health food products for the

    normalization of intestinal transit. They have dual effect on intestinal transit.

    1steffect is on the bulk of faeces, which is often

    increased proportions that it takes place withinsoluble fibers( 127 % after ingestion of 20 g of

    wheat bran).

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    They are generally categorized into two groups:

    Water soluble and water insoluble fibers.

    Soluble fibres dissolve in water and form a gelthat binds the stool and inhibits the non-propulsive

    colon contraction.

    Present in Oats, dried beans, legumes, etc. Water insoluble fibres mainly helps in bulking of

    stool and their quick passage through digestive

    tract.

    Present in Brown rice, banana, vegetables, etc.

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    SOURCE OF DIETARY FIBRES:

    Fresh fruits with fibre 18-30%(apple, orange)

    Vegetables with 9-12% fibres(cabbage, carrot)

    Dried beans peas with 20% total fibres.

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    Carotenoids:

    They are present in vegetables, fruits and other

    herbal drugs, which on ingestion, are degraded at

    the level of human intestinal mucosa into retinol(vit. A ) and exert a preventive action against

    degenerative disordres.

    Examples: carrot, tomato, citrus, egg, liver, fish

    and palm oil.

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    They also interfere with photo-oxidation process

    and are of use in prevention and treatment of

    photosensitizition.

    They are useful as natural, efficacious non-toxic

    food colorant.

    Chief carotenoids containing herbal drugs usedare Alfalfa, Capsicum, Saffron and Palm oil.

    Examples: Acacia, Alfalfa, Basil sweet, Caraway,Fennel, Garlic, Ginger, Saffron, etc.

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    FENNEL:

    Commonly fennel is of two types:

    Bitter fennel

    Sweet fennel

    Fennel consists of dried ripe fruits ofFoeniculum

    vulgare (Umbelliferae).

    It is cultivated in Europe and much is imported

    from India, China and Egypt.

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    Chemical constituents:

    It contains 1-4% volatile oil, phenolic ether trans-

    anethole and ketons.Also contain (+)-fenchone.

    Health food:It is use as spice as health food, because of its

    carminative and flavoring properties.

    Sweet fennel oil are widely used as alcoholic andnon-alcoholic beverages, frozen dairy desserts,

    candy, etc.

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    TURMERIC:

    It is obtained from the plant of rhizomes of

    Curcuma longa ( Zingibereceae). It is perennial herb, having thick rhizome.

    Native to southern asia

    Extensively cultivated in India, China, Indonesiaand other topical countries.

    India is the major supplier to whole market.

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    Chemical constituents:

    It contains 3-7% orange colored volatile oil

    which composed of turmerone(60%), atlantoneand zingiberone.

    Also contain 1,8 cineole, borneol, sabinene.

    Also contain sugars, fixed oil, protein, vitamin Cand resins.

    Health food:It is the major ingredient of cury powder to

    stimulate appetite.

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    Used to treat liver problems, hemorrhages, chestpain, skin diseases, constipation, etc.

    Acts as flavoring agent.

    Used for its broad- spectrum antimicrobialactivity.

    Used as antioxidants.

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    Thank you