Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis

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<ul><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 1/8</p><p>Christian Huelsman</p><p>Hennepin AvenueThe original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 2/8</p><p>Midwest Regional Context</p><p>Study Area Urban Context</p><p>1903 Plat Map</p><p>The Hennepin Avenue study area(shown in blue) now exists in the</p><p>northwestern corner of downtown.It is flanked on three sides by</p><p>Interstate freeways. Its originaland natural edge, the Mississippi,</p><p>remains relatively unchangedsince the inception of the corridor.</p><p>The study area can be found in</p><p>Minneapolis, Minnesota, nearly425 miles northwest of Chicagoby freeway, and 275 miles fromMadison, Wisconsin.</p><p>It is accessible from St. Paul,Minnesota within ten miles.</p><p>FOCUS&gt; Gateway Districtbetween 1st + 5th Street South</p><p>&gt; East Warehouse Districtbetween 5th + 7th Streets South</p><p>&gt; Theater Districtbetween 7th + 10th Streets South</p><p>Hennepin Avenue: Regional Context</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 3/8</p><p>Original 1854 Plan</p><p>1903 Plat Map</p><p>Hennepin Avenue was the original commercialcenter of Minneapolis. Charles W. Christmas, thefirst surveyor of Hennepin County, oriented lots toface inward on Hennepin, as well as the first threeblocks from the Mississippi on Nicollet Street.</p><p>In 1854, only Hennepin Avenue and WashingtonAvenue had 100 foot rights-of-way, while all otherstreets maintained 80 feet.</p><p>The historic street grid has beenleft largely intact throughout the</p><p>Hennepin corridor. Notablechanges include connections</p><p>between both sides of 9th Street,including a connection at 10th Street.</p><p>By 1903, dense commercial developmentdominated Hennepin and adjacent streets,</p><p>as far southwest as 5th Street South,but followed Hennepin as far</p><p>as 9th Street South.</p><p>N</p><p>10th Street South</p><p>1st Street South</p><p>STUDYAREA</p><p>The prominent orientation of Hennepin Avenue</p><p>FOCUSq Gateway District1st St to 5th St</p><p>r East Warehouse District5th St to 7th St</p><p>sTheater District7th St to 10th St</p><p>q</p><p>r</p><p>s</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 4/8</p><p>Gateway District</p><p>Old City HallNicollet HotelBridge Square</p><p>Landmarksof interest</p><p>nn</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>The original site of Minneapolis City Hallwas known as Bridge Square, due to its</p><p>proximity to the nearby bridge over theMississippi. The focus of the original cityplan and development of the civic centerreinforced development, as did the city</p><p>streetcar, first operational fromHennepin to the state university, via</p><p>the bridge north to University Avenue.Proximity to the regional freight hubspurred rapid economic growth -- soquickly that a larger city hall and</p><p>courthouse was built five blocks eastand two blocks south to Fifth St/2nd</p><p>Ave S. Upon completion, the old sitewas razed for a park. and the areawas rebranded as the GatewayDistrict, to further development.</p><p>Hennepin Avenues changing role in urban life</p><p>Stage One: 1873-1912</p><p>1886 1906 1912</p><p>Stage Two: 1930s-1961</p><p>As soon as the 1930s, the GatewayDistrict had already failed, at least in theeyes of city officials. The square had</p><p>become the place to find liquor stores,</p><p>flophouses, and plenty of blue-collarpoor. However, the building stock hadremained largely untampered. The</p><p>1950s brought proposals to raze the</p><p>oldest areas of downtown -- 20 blockstotal. The Gateway District becamean expansive plain of parking, save</p><p>for low-density corporate development.</p><p>1952 1961</p><p>n n</p><p>nn</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>1948</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 5/8</p><p>East Warehouse District: 5th + 6th Street South</p><p>The 500 and 600 blocks of HennepinAvenue have undergone, perhaps, the</p><p>most extensive metamorphosis, as canbe seen later. In 1889, however, theMasonic Building can be seen withsingle-family detached homes.</p><p>The Masonic Building was eventuallymatched by the Plymouth Building,</p><p>directly across Hennepin Avenue.Retail on the 600 Block, however,remained single-story and devoidof any imaginative ornamentation.</p><p>As vaudeville and motion picturetheaters became increasingly popular,</p><p>higher density commercial buildingstook the place of wood framedretail. A boom economy brought aconstruction boom all along Hennepin.</p><p>Hennepin Avenues changing role in urban life</p><p>1880s-1920s: Densification</p><p>1930s-1960s: Decline and Segmentation</p><p>1889 1916</p><p>It appears as though the two nearestbuildings suffered from the Depression.Upper floors are masked by adverts,</p><p>storefronts are barren, and cars are few.</p><p>Additional signage appears to havebeen erected, following World War II.The structure beyond the Masonic</p><p>Building was razed by the mid-1940s.</p><p>The others were razed by themid-1940s, and replaced by parkinglots and a modern office building.</p><p>The 600 Block, however, remained.</p><p>1936 1948</p><p>Masonic TemplePlymouth BldgBlock E</p><p>Landmarksof interest</p><p>1961</p><p>1926</p><p>n nn</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>nnn</p><p>n</p><p>n n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 6/8</p><p>Theatre District: 8th + 9th Streets South</p><p>Orpheum TheatreGopher TheatreState Theatre</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>Landmarksof interest</p><p>The Hennepin Theatre District is now anon-profit consortium of performance</p><p>theater operators, but it was once arapidly changing assortment of first-runand second-run spaces. In 1908, theOrpheum had not yet been built, but</p><p>uniform street lights led up to the 900block. As the heyday of theaters,</p><p>streetcars, and automobiles coincided,development in the district flourished.Ornamentation remained constant butsignage created more visual clutter.</p><p>By the 1950s, automobiles competedwith streetcars for space. Streetlights</p><p>were replaced sometime after WWII.Structures along the district remainedmostly unchanged. Adverts becameever more prominent.</p><p>Hennepin Avenues changing role in urban life</p><p>1954-2007: Decline and Rebirth</p><p>1908 1926</p><p>By the mid-1950s, theater marqueeseither disappeared or were altered.Street lighting took a contemporary</p><p>approach. The most apparent change</p><p>was the removal of the streetcar line,enabling two full traffic lanes. Boththe State and Gopher Theatre</p><p>marquees filled out the southeast side</p><p>of the block. Due to a decline in smallstreet theaters in the late 1970s, manywere shuttered and repurposed. Many</p><p>buildings were altered but remain.</p><p>1957 1961 2007</p><p>1951</p><p>1900-1954: District Development</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>nnn</p><p>n</p><p>n</p><p>nn</p><p>n</p><p>nn</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 7/8</p><p>A.M. Smiths 1891 Birds Eye View MapChanging connections and transit options</p><p>Twin Cities Rapid Transit (1891)</p><p>Streetcar along study area</p><p>Connections from Hennepin</p><p>Gateway District (1st - 5th St)</p><p>Warehouse District (5th - 7th St)</p><p>Theater District (7th - 10th St)</p><p>L</p><p>L</p><p>LL</p><p>L</p><p>By 1948, streetcar lines at Marquetteand 2nd Avenues make travel easier todestinations across the river. Both a busroute and a streetcar line on Nicolletand Marquette Avenues served St. Pauland suburbs via service to Hennepin.</p><p>Since the 1909 relocation of City Hall,the commerce center of Minneapoliswas reborn between 2nd andMarquette Avenues.</p><p>Observations</p><p>+ Original trolley connections to Hennepin, paired</p><p>with the alteration of the street grid at 10th</p><p>Street, seem to have created district boundaries</p><p>and magnets for redevelopment over time.</p><p>+</p><p>+</p><p>The multiplier effect that transit junctions played</p><p>along Hennepin appeared to spread to the</p><p>southeast, as the commerce center shifted.</p><p>Lines in 1891 and 1948 seemed to dictate</p><p>development, not conversely.</p><p>WashingtonAve</p><p>ThirdStreet</p><p>SixthStreet Seven</p><p>thStr</p><p>eet</p><p>Transportation metamorphosis on Hennepin</p></li><li><p>8/13/2019 Hennepin Avenue: The original historic urban street in Minneapolis</p><p> 8/8</p><p>Learning from a complete eraFuture districts imitate + exceed yesteryear</p><p>(1st - 5th St)</p><p>(5th - 7th St)</p><p>(7th - 10th St)</p><p>L</p><p>L</p><p>GATEWAYDISTRICT</p><p>DISTRICT</p><p>DISTRICT</p><p>WAREHOUSE</p><p>THEATER</p><p>#</p><p>#</p><p>#</p><p>L</p><p>L</p><p>; ; ;;</p><p>oneway</p><p>oneway</p><p>oneway</p><p>busonlybikes</p><p>; ;;</p><p>parking</p><p>safety</p><p>zone</p><p>1990s -- 20111890s-1954Multi-modal Street Orientation</p><p>Twin Cities Rapid Transit (1891)Streetcar along study area</p><p>Connections from HennepinL</p><p>Provisions for streetcars</p><p>once limited cars. By the</p><p>1990s, multiple modes</p><p>shared Hennepin Avenue.</p><p>However, in 2012, the</p><p>street returns to two-way.</p><p>; ; ;;;</p><p>busonly</p><p>oneway</p><p>oneway</p><p>busonly</p><p>b</p><p>ikes;</p><p>bikes</p><p>2012 - beyond</p><p>1920</p><p>1920</p><p>1920</p><p>Streets accommodating current modesLimited gaps between building fabricConnectivity with other districts</p><p>Key qualities</p><p>The city reinvented the Gateway</p><p>but lacks walkability and, thus,</p><p>a connection to the riverfront.</p><p>Encouraging on-street parking</p><p>may encourage pedestrian</p><p>activity. However, the current</p><p>environment is neither</p><p>walkable nor perceviably public.</p><p>The newer Block E development</p><p>replaced a full city block of</p><p>individually wrapped storefronts.</p><p>The urban mall already suffers</p><p>from store closures, and willcontinue to experience this.</p><p>The street encourages</p><p>walkability, but the stores</p><p>are shielded indoors.</p><p>The theater district remains</p><p>largely intact but feels a</p><p>visual threat from towers</p><p>to the east. The new</p><p>Target Field baseball stadium,</p><p>located to the west, may</p><p>offer some rejuvenation,but careful integration will</p><p>be key to ensure new life.</p><p>2011</p><p>2011</p><p>2011</p><p>Benchmarking to complete Hennepin</p></li></ul>

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