Game On! The Gamification of Adult Learning Click to watch how Paul Anderson used game elements to improve learning in his AP Biology course: Classroom.
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PowerPoint PresentationGame On! The Gamification of Adult LearningClick to watch how Paul Anderson used game elements to improve learningin his AP Biology course: Classroom Game Design: TEDxBozemanWhat is Gamification?Gamification is the application of game mechanics and psychology to drive desired behaviors in non-game settings.Source: (Trees, 2013).2What are common game elements?RewardsBadgesPrivilegesStatusTitlesAchievementLevelsPoints/gradesSelf-expressionAvatarsChoiceCompetitionLeaderboardEmotionWhat is a badge?A badge is a visual validation of achievement that indicates a persons knowledge, skill, or accomplishment.Think of badges as a way to recognize a persons multifaceted abilities. Badges allow students to provide a more comprehensive developmental narrative to share with peers, parents, teachers, and potential schools or employers. Source: (,)What are some achievements that can be rewarded with badges?PerformanceProductBehaviorAttendancePunctualityRespectparticipationWhy use badges?To signify successes, establish goals, and foster positive learning and working habitsCompleting projects and performancesMastering conceptsRewarding behaviorAttendancePunctualityLeadershipRespectParticipation6How do I deliver badges?Identify learning goals and reward progress and completion.Identifybehaviors and reward demonstration (e.g. artifact creation, skill development, participation, goal achievement, reflection) and how you can recognize multiple aspects of learning.Identifycompetencies.Source: (Deterding, 2011, p. 4).PointsRewardsStatus (leaderboard)AchievementCompetition digital games (1) are built on sound learning principles, (2) provide more engagement for the learner, (3) provide personalized learning opportunities, (4) teach 21st century skills, and (5) provide an environment for authentic and relevant assessment.best LeaderboardsCOmpetititWhat behaviors do gamers exhibit?Risk taking (freedom to fail)PersistanceAttention to detailProblem-solving skillsPeter & Iona Opie in 1969 observed that when children played tag, they would run vigorously for a time to evade being tagged, and then stop abruptly to receive the tag.12What characteristics of gaming benefit learning?Enables individual pacing (personalized learning)Fosters collaborationFosters just in time learning earningFosters active construction of learningWhat learning tools are embedded in games?StructureGoalsFeedbackPath to progress (Trees. 2009, p. 16)What does the research say?Navigation, military training and health care games and simulations have been widely used with a certain degree of success Gameplay constitutes a particularly effective way of organizing learning activitiesGameplay is regarded as an important arena for the development and formation of thinking, identities, values and normsSources: (Gee, 2003); (Rystedt, 2002); (Cole, 1996; Piaget, 1951; Rogoff, 1990)Games and learning has a history that predates modern video gamesGaming environments enable players to discover and create the learning arrangementCollect Quest: collect/harvest resourcesPuzzle Quest: solve a problemShare Quest: share resources/knowledge Drama Quest: collect/harvest resources Conquest Quest: capture territory or resourcesReconnaissance Quest: observe, gather, and report informationResearch Quest: Timeline1980s: Floppy disk behaviorist drill & practice (MathBlaster); open-ended environments (The Incredible Machine)1990s: Proliferation of educational CD-ROMs (Where in the World is Carmen San Diego; Reader Rabbit)Late 1990s: Software with narrow focus on specific academic skills; lack of problem-solving and creative games (p18) (edutainment)Early 2000s: Leap Frog (recycled content with licensed characters)Mid-2000s: Serious Games movement (Games for Training, Woodrow Wilson Foundation) Games for Change: freerice Games for Health Advergaming1990s spawned an industry: mail catalogsCame to a crashing halt with the emergence of free content with web browsers on the internet (p17)SGM: fueled by interest in using games for military purposes18Types of Learning GamesAuthoring systems: Students produce an artifactContent systems: Students learn content or subjectManipulating systems: Students test theories in dynamic contextsTrigger systems: Students participate in experiential learning around a topic or principalGateway systems: Students experiment with new technologiesReflective systems: Students reflect on process within a particular contextPOV systems: Students take on a particular identityCode systems: Students use writing as primary mechanic of game playIdeological systems: Students read games as texts that express ideologiesResearch systems: Students design games to be used as learning tools and materials(p24-26)(p24-25)What are the barriers to adoption?Schools slow to adopt new innovationsResearch around play patterns and learning was limitedDesigning good games was difficultParent and educator attitudes toward gamesLack of PD for teachers to integrate gamingSkills that games develop are not assessed in standardized testsLack of evidence to support use(MLGF p20)The players:Proponents vs. OpponentsGameplay makes formal learning more pleasurable, motivating and effectiveComputer games might have negative effects on peoples attitudes and behavior. (Mitchell & Savill-Smith, 2004); (Kirriemuir & Mcfarlane, 2004).(Anderson & Dill, 2000; Walsh, Gentile, Gieske, Walsh & Chasko, 2004).ResourcesGamificationCorp.Jane McGonigal, TedTalk: Gaming can make a better worldSeth Priesbatch, TedTalk: The game layer on top of the world Mozilla Open Source BadgesReferencesDeterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: Defining gamifcation. Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (MindTrek 11). New York, NY. Klopfer, E., Osterweil, S., & Salen, K. (2009). Moving learning games forward: Obstacles, opportunities, and openness. The Education Arcade: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved from http://www.educationarcade.org/Trees, L. (2013). Gamification in knowledge management: How it works and what your organization should know. Houston, TX: APQC white paper.
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