Future Prospects for Halal Meat Quality_2016
Post on 11-Jan-2017
Dr Mustafa Farouk
Food and Bio-based Products, AgResearch Limited;
Presentation at the 7th Penang Halal International Halal Expo & Conference (PIHEC), 29 - 31 January 2016, Setia SPICE, Penang
Future Prospects for Halal Meat Quality
Contents 1. Introduction
2. Importance of industrially produced halal meat
3. Definitions and importance
Conventional meat quality
Spiritual meat quality
4. Meeting the spiritual quality of industrial halal meat
Animal welfare drivers
5. Pre-slaughter stunning and spiritual meat quality
Future halal pre-stunning methods
6. Animal welfare and spiritual meat quality
Value (USD x 1000) of imported halal red meat, poultry and co-products of
some selected countries/regions in 2012 Importing country/region &
products Red meat category Poultry
Chilled beef Frozen beef Lamb and
Halal red meat, poultry & co-products
Indonesia 11,499 127,715 8,083 16,792 1,209
Maghreb 57,276 305,497 36,842 3,940 175,520
Malaysia 16,972 410,097 95,742 48,336 108,341
Middle East 598,504 2,942,249 897,159 278,916 4,078,447
- Saudi Arabia 75,043 362,267 225,707 36,540 1,513,312
- United Arab Emirates 160,105 195,407 223,470 12,516 644,587
World total red meat import 19,803,464 17,797,649 5,642,451 6,786,811 25,041,855
Source: Market Analysis Research, International Trade Centre (ITC) Geneva Switzerland
(http://www.trademap.org/tradestat/Country_SelProductCountry_TS.aspx). Accessed 23 March 2014.
Maghreb = Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco and Tunisia.
Middle East = Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Palestine, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, UAE and
Conventional definitions of quality are based on
the inherent or perceived physical characteristics
For most consumers they determine the meats
appeal, acceptability, utility and, ultimately, its
Conventional meat quality
Consumers perception of meat quality is wide and subjective
This perception reflects among others:
regional and national differences,
ethnicity and culture,
political and economic considerations,
individual beliefs and ideologies, and
package labelling information and context
MEAT QUALITY ATTRIBUTES
Halal/Origin Animal Welfare
Spiritual meat quality: Halal perspective
Spirituality and ideology influence peoples attitude towards
the killing of animals and the consumption of meat.
Consideration of the source, life and death of the animal adds
another dimension to meat quality - one that cannot be
evaluated by science or measured by instruments.
Thus, in addition to all the conventional terms used to convey
the qualities of meat, spiritual quality is of foundational
importance for faith groups.
Spiritual meat quality
Halal is a quality cue that is very difficult or impossible to
evaluate with the current methods.
Therefore, trust is very important throughout the supply chain
for the acceptability of halal meat.
Thus, sound traceability and involving those that Islam say can
be trusted in the supply chain are necessary for maintaining
the spiritual quality of halal meat .
Halal credence quality
Industrial halal meat production
Slaughtered alive in accordance with Islamic shariah
Complete death before any further
Humane and considerate treatment of livestock
(minimum stress and pain prior to and during
Safety of the slaughterer and all concerned
Critical points for the spiritual quality of halal meat
Purpose of stunning
To render the animal insensible to pain
To minimise fear, panic and other adverse effects associated with slaughter
Halal consumers divide on stunning
1) Those who totally reject stunning as non-Halal compliant
2) Those who accept stunning regardless of the method used
3) Those who accept stunning but are not sure which method is Halal compliant and want assurance in the following:
- Is the stunned animal alive before it was slaughtered?
- Is the stunning painful to the animal?
- Does it affect the wholesomeness of the meat?
Head-only electrical stunning and associated processes
The animal is restrained in the head bail that contains electrodes which contact the animals head behind the ears and the tip of the nose.
The animal is stunned across the brain with an electric current of 1.5-2.5 A, 400V a.c. for 2-4 seconds.
The animal is dropped onto a cradle or moving table and the Halal cut is performed as soon as practicable but usually within 10-15 seconds of stunning.
Electro-immobilisation electrodes contact the animal between the nose and the anus and power is turned on (80-90 V d.c., 300mAmp,10 ms pulse at 15 pulses/sec).
Electro-immobilisation is allowed to time out (15-30 seconds).
Stunning and electro-immobilization
Potential halal pre-stunning methods
Reversible head-to-body electrical stunning
Interferential current stunning
Transcranial Magnetic stunning
Microwave energy stunning
Local or general anaesthesia with natural agents
Modified atmosphere and Low Atmospheric Pressure stunning
Recoverable head-to-body electrical stunning
Using high frequencies (1-2A, 1000-2000 HZ, 350-500 V, 4 s) Current NZ MIA study (AgResearch Ltd, Massey University, FIANZ, UPM,
Jarvis Engineering Ltd)
Recoverable head-to-body stunning
A current study comparing the use of high frequency
head-to-body and low frequency head-only electrical
Bobby calves, cattle, sheep, goats will be minimally
anaesthetised, stunned using the two methods and
EEG recordings done
Recovery following stunning and behavioural studies
Interferential current stunning
De Domenico, G. (1982). The Australian Journal of Physiotherapy, 28(3), 1418; Johnson and Tabasam (2003). Physical Therapy, 83(3), 208-223
Used in acute and chronic pain management including
electro-narcosis and electro-anaesthesia
Interferential Current is based on the summation of two
sinusoid alternating currents with their waveforms
slightly offset or out of phase
This mixing of the signals results in a low-frequency
current that consists of cyclical modulation of the
amplitude which is dependent on the difference of
frequencies of the two carrier signals
When the signals are in phase, the carrier signals sum
to a value able to stimulate the tissue. When out of
phase, no stimulation results.
19.2mA current amplitude
Transcranial magnetic stunning (TMS)
Used in psychiatric therapy to induce seizures in patients
Intense magnetic field is generated by passing a large
amount of current through a copper coil. The coil is
positioned close to the head so that the brain lies within
this magnetic field to affect a stun.
Tried on 25 broilers with 20 successfully completed
TMS at 35 or 50 Hz; 250-300 pulses; 80-51% power; 5 s
EEG traces showed evidence of insensibility and a
dominance of theta and delta wave
Unconsciousness lasted for 15 to 20 s
Lambooij et al. 2011. Animal Welfare 20: 407-412;
TMS Stimulator & coil: http://www.magstim.com/product/1/70mm-double-air-film-coil
Microwave Energy Stunning (MES)
Small et al. (2013) Animal welfare 22, 291-296.
MES has been used in euthanizing laboratory animals by raising the brain temperature by 8C
Four sheep were exposed to 4 kW of energy at 922 MHz for between 5 and 20 s. Temperature profiles, EEG and histology of the brain and onset of recovery following stunning were determined
Application of microwave energy caused rapid increases in brain temperature within 10-20 s to 43C (a point above which insensibility would be expected to occur)
EEG showed high amplitude activity similar to the epileptiform activity induced by the current practice of electrical stunning
Patent International Application No. PCT/AU2011/000527
Local or general anesthesia with natural agents
Slaughter stress and pain can be reduced by local anaesthesia using the commercial anaesthetics
Residue in meat would render such application commercially unviable
A commercial food-grade fish anaesthetic with iso-eugenol as the active ingredient (AQUI-S) has been approved for use in many countries
This has been used to successfully anaesthetize fish including Atlantic cod and salmon
The availability of natural anaesthetics for fish raises the prospects of others suitable for use in local anaesthesia of red meat animals prior to slaughter
Spiritual quality: machine vs hand slaughter
Animal Welfare affects meats spiritual
Science can tell us about an animal
..but this doesnt get us all the way
Our beliefs and ethics also have an important role to play in deciding what is acceptable
Consumers are a driving force for animal welfare
Consumer views on animal welfare
94.3% would like to see a
welfare scoring system to
be used in food stores
Willing to pay an
proportion of their meat
expenditure for meat with
higher welfare scores
United Kingdom 2009
Kehlbacher, A., Bennett, R., & Balcombe, K. (2012). Measuring the consumer benefits of improving farm animal welfare to inform welfare labelling. Food Policy, 37(6), 627-633
Question: do you agree with the statement:
Meat from animal with high welfare is..
A substantial quantity of meat is produced around the world using industrial halal methods and associated processes.
The conventionally-defined attributes of meat quality are demanded by halal and conventional consumers alike.
additional attribute of spiritual quality is paramount for those who consume halal for religious reasons.
Consumers are increasingly associating meat quality with animal welfare
Head-only pre-slaughter stunning or no-stunning are commonly
used in halal meat production
There are a number of technologies currently being trialled with
potential to reduce quality defects associated with stunning when
they become commercially available.
Research to produce technologies and processes to harmonise
the religious and the temporal requirements for the production
of halal meat of high spiritual and conventional quality is