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  • 1

    1M

    CB

    140

    Func

    tiona

    l gen

    omic

    s

    2M

    CB

    140

    Jacq

    ues

    Mon

    od (1

    970)

    :

    The

    sec

    ret o

    f life

    ?

    But i

    n pr

    inci

    ple

    we

    alre

    ady

    know

    the

    secr

    et o

    f life

    .

    Hor

    ace

    Juds

    on T

    he E

    ight

    h D

    ay o

    f Cre

    atio

    n

    3M

    CB

    140

    Dr.

    Syd

    ney

    Bre

    nner

    :In

    late

    196

    2, F

    ranc

    is C

    rick

    and

    I beg

    an a

    long

    se

    ries

    of c

    onve

    rsat

    ions

    abo

    ut th

    e ne

    xt s

    teps

    to

    be

    take

    n in

    our

    rese

    arch

    . Bot

    h of

    us

    felt

    very

    stro

    ngly

    that

    mos

    t of t

    he c

    lass

    ical

    pr

    oble

    ms

    of m

    olec

    ular

    bio

    logy

    had

    bee

    n so

    lved

    and

    that

    the

    futu

    re la

    y in

    tack

    ling

    mor

    e co

    mpl

    ex b

    iolo

    gica

    l pro

    blem

    s. I

    rem

    embe

    r tha

    t w

    e de

    cide

    d ag

    ains

    t wor

    king

    on

    anim

    al

    viru

    ses,

    on

    the

    stru

    ctur

    e of

    ribo

    som

    es, o

    n m

    embr

    anes

    , and

    oth

    er s

    imila

    r triv

    ial

    prob

    lem

    s in

    mol

    ecul

    ar b

    iolo

    gy. I

    had

    com

    e to

    be

    lieve

    that

    mos

    t of m

    olec

    ular

    bio

    logy

    had

    be

    com

    e in

    evita

    ble

    and

    that

    , as

    I put

    it in

    a

    draf

    t pap

    er, "

    we

    mus

    t mov

    e on

    to o

    ther

    pr

    oble

    ms

    of b

    iolo

    gy w

    hich

    are

    new

    , m

    yste

    rious

    and

    exc

    iting

    . Bro

    adly

    spe

    akin

    g,

    the

    field

    s w

    hich

    we

    shou

    ld n

    ow e

    nter

    are

    de

    velo

    pmen

    t and

    the

    nerv

    ous

    syst

    em."

    4M

    CB

    140

    The

    spec

    ies

    with

    the

    smal

    lest

    gen

    ome

    size

    in th

    is c

    lass

    is

    Myc

    opla

    sma

    geni

    taliu

    m (5

    80 k

    b), w

    hich

    was

    orig

    inal

    ly is

    olat

    ed

    from

    ure

    thra

    l spe

    cim

    ens

    of p

    atie

    nts

    with

    non

    -gon

    occo

    cal

    uret

    hriti

    s an

    d ha

    s si

    nce

    been

    sho

    wn

    to e

    xist

    in p

    aras

    itic

    asso

    ciat

    ion

    with

    cili

    ated

    epi

    thel

    ial c

    ells

    of p

    rimat

    e ge

    nita

    l and

    re

    spira

    tory

    trac

    ts. M

    ycop

    lasm

    as a

    re o

    f int

    eres

    t bec

    ause

    they

    ar

    e be

    lieve

    d to

    repr

    esen

    t a m

    inim

    al li

    fe fo

    rm, h

    avin

    g yi

    elde

    d to

    se

    lect

    ive

    pres

    sure

    to re

    duce

    gen

    ome

    size

    .

    http

    ://w

    ww

    .tigr

    .org

    /CM

    R2/

    Bac

    kGro

    und/

    gmg.

    htm

    l

  • 2

    5M

    CB

    140

    The

    min

    imal

    gen

    e co

    mpl

    emen

    t of M

    ycop

    lasm

    a ge

    nita

    lium

    .

    Fras

    er C

    M, G

    ocay

    ne J

    D, W

    hite

    O, A

    dam

    s M

    D, C

    layt

    on R

    A,

    Flei

    schm

    ann

    RD

    , Bul

    t CJ,

    Ker

    lava

    ge A

    R, S

    utto

    n G

    , Kel

    ley

    JM, e

    t al.

    Inst

    itute

    for G

    enom

    ic R

    esea

    rch,

    Roc

    kville

    , MD

    208

    50, U

    SA

    .

    The

    com

    plet

    e nu

    cleo

    tide

    sequ

    ence

    (580

    ,070

    bas

    e pa

    irs) o

    f the

    M

    ycop

    lasm

    a ge

    nita

    lium

    geno

    me,

    the

    smal

    lest

    kno

    wn

    geno

    me

    of a

    ny fr

    ee-

    livin

    g or

    gani

    sm, h

    as b

    een

    dete

    rmin

    ed b

    y w

    hole

    -gen

    ome

    rand

    om

    sequ

    enci

    ng a

    nd a

    ssem

    bly.

    A to

    tal o

    f onl

    y 47

    0 pr

    edic

    ted

    codi

    ng re

    gion

    s w

    ere

    iden

    tifie

    d th

    at in

    clud

    e ge

    nes

    requ

    ired

    for D

    NA

    repl

    icat

    ion,

    trans

    crip

    tion

    and

    trans

    latio

    n, D

    NA

    repa

    ir, c

    ellu

    lar t

    rans

    port,

    and

    ene

    rgy

    met

    abol

    ism

    .

    Sci

    ence

    , 199

    5.

    6M

    CB

    140

    How

    doe

    s lif

    e w

    ork?

    How

    doe

    s th

    e ge

    nom

    e w

    ork?

    Seq

    uenc

    e of

    gen

    ome

    answ

    erP

    robl

    em: v

    ery

    man

    y ge

    nes

    of u

    nkno

    wn

    func

    tion:

    In h

    uman

    , at l

    east

    12,

    000

    (30%

    ).In

    mou

    se,