For Sustainable Development: Some Aspects on Energy and Environment in Turkey

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  • This article was downloaded by: [UQ Library]On: 21 November 2014, At: 18:01Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

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    For Sustainable Development: SomeAspects on Energy and Environment inTurkeyH. Salvarli aa Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir Vocational School , Buca-Izmir, TurkeyPublished online: 09 Sep 2009.

    To cite this article: H. Salvarli (2009) For Sustainable Development: Some Aspects on Energy andEnvironment in Turkey, Energy Sources, Part B: Economics, Planning, and Policy, 4:4, 356-364, DOI:10.1080/15567240701621190

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  • Energy Sources, Part B, 4:356364, 2009

    Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

    ISSN: 1556-7249 print/1556-7257 online

    DOI: 10.1080/15567240701621190

    For Sustainable Development: Some Aspects on

    Energy and Environment in Turkey


    1Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir Vocational School, Buca-Izmir, Turkey

    Abstract The high energy demand in Turkey is closely linked to economic growth,industrialization, and population increase. Turkish general energy policies are de-

    signed to support economic and social development. Natural conditions of Turkeyare favorable for utilization of new and renewable energies, such as hydraulic energy,

    geothermal energy, wind energy, biomass energy, solar energy, and, probably, nuclearenergy. As the use of hydraulic and coal in Turkey will reach its full capacity by

    2020, imported natural gas, coal, and other resources will be used to meet the energydemand. By 2020, approximately 75% of final energy demand and 67% of electricity

    supply will be met by coal, oil, and natural gas. Energy investments, which are closelyrelated with the environmental protection, require massive financial resources. It is

    also important to use standardized equipment and materials in all areas of energygeneration, transmission, distribution, and trade. For a sustainable development, the

    next investments on industry should be made for the clean technologies in regard withbeing environment-friendly.

    Keywords development, energy, environment, sustainable, Turkey


    In the 21st century, the five most important materials that should be looked for include:

    food, water, soil, air, and energy. At present, the preferential choices in energy systems

    are made according to the inputs of economical, political, and partly environment andhuman life. Energy requirements for human beings has increased sharply throughout

    the development of civilization, and there is a firm relationship between the level of

    development and amount of energy consumed in a country.

    The primary energy resources (such as coal, oil, and natural gas) are scarce, and their

    use with inferior technologies results in an energy generation at non-optimal prices anddamage to the environment. To guarantee the energy needs of a country, the environment,

    cultural heritage, and rich natural sources should be considered. There is no equal

    relationship between the supply and demand functions in energy utilities. The national

    energy policy of many countries is now saving energy and utilization of domestic energy

    sources. In the coming decades, responses to environmental issues are to affect patterns

    of energy use in Turkey also.Turkey is an energy-importing country, more than half of its energy requirement being

    met by imports (MENR, 2006). The most significant recent change in the structure of

    Address correspondence to Huseyin Salvarli, Dokuz Eylul University, Izmir Vocational School,Buca-Izmir 35160, Turkey. E-mail:





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  • For Sustainable Development 357

    Turkish fuel consumption has been the increase in electricity and natural gas consumption

    (BOTAS, 2006).

    Energy is the key to industrial development, leading to the economic and social pros-

    perity. In order to improve economy, support ecology, and save energy, the planning and

    construction of industrial plants must be undertaken for the benefit of the environment.

    Under these circumstances, some legislative or tax advantages must be provided to theproducers and consumers. The demand for energy increases tremendously. At present,

    77% of world energy production is consumed by 28% of the worlds population living

    in the industrial countries. The worlds population is expected to reach 9.1 billion in

    2050, which is about 1.5 times that of todays population (UN, 2005). Ninety percent

    of the population growth will be in the developing countries, which already have morethan three-quarters of the worlds population. Thus, there will be a great energy demand

    almost tripling it by 2050, even if the developed countries adopt more effective energy

    conservation policies so that their energy consumption does not increase at all over that

    period. However, developing countries and residents of rural areas often must construct

    their own elecricity generating facilities.

    Energy generation of Turkey from its own domestic resources is, at present, about40% and is expected to be at 20% by 2020 (MENR, 2006). Thus, Turkey will be

    forced to import energy in increasing proportions. Turkeys energy strategy is aimed

    at satisfying demand without preventing economic growth. The Turkish Ministry of

    Energy and Natural Resources (MENR) prepares energy generation and demand plans in

    accordance with the growth targets given by the State Planning Organization (DPT, 2006).Plans are closely related to factors, such as development, industrialization, urbanization,

    technology, and conservation. The goverment has already developed an energy policy

    which is related to supplying high quality, reliable, and inexpensive forms of energy to

    the consumers in a timely manner. To meet such an energy demand for new energy plans,

    Turkey needs to spend approximately US$130 billion up to 2020 (DPT, 2006).At present, use of fossil fuels with high sulphur and ash content, old combustion

    technologies and out-of-date industrial premises, insufficient use of air pollution control

    devices, and insufficient insulation practices are some of the main causes of air pollution

    problems due to energy utilization in Turkey. On the other hand, intensive urbanization

    due to chanty town development has already resulted in considerably high air pollution

    in and around many Turkish cities since the 1980s. In connection with Turkeys growth,industrialization, sustainable development, and population increase, there have been sub-

    stantial problems in meeting, especially, air quality requirements and adding flue gas

    desulfurization systems to existing major plants and plants under development.

    To obtain a sustainable and steady development in an environmentally-friendly way,

    the present insufficient and old technologies of industrial process plants must be mod-ernized towards the standard limits. To cost-effectively improve the environment, the

    clean power generation is required to meet the growing worldwide energy demand while

    conserving resources.

    Electricity production has been growing very rapidly. Turkey has aimed at improving

    domestic production by utilizing public, private, and foreign utilities and increasing effi-ciency by rehabilitation and acceleration of existing construction programs to initiate new

    investments. Since the 1980s, the state monopoly in generation, transmission, distribution,

    and trading of electricity has been abolished, and within this framework, necessary legal

    models have been practiced in Turkey. In order to overcome financial constraints, some

    models have been provided through formulas such as BOTBuilt-Operate-Transfer,

    BOBuilt-Own-Operate, and TORTransfer of Operating Rights in the electricity




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  • 358 H. Salvarli

    sector. It is also a known fact that special attention has been given to the industrial auto-

    producer concept, and thus cogeneration, which is the most efficient and environmentally

    friendly method of generating thermal energy, is built by private autoproducer companies.

    As the non-availability of long-term treasury guarantees for power purchase agreements

    of BO projects may have some disadvantages on the countrys policy, a number of

    autoproducer projects will be favored during the years ahead. On the other hand, forsupporting to meet energy needs of Turkish industry at competitive cost, the independent

    power producers (IPPs) have established and provided plenty of small- to medium-sized

    power generating projects for industry. Thus, such power plants supply energy close to

    consumers and also run on several alternative fuels. In Turkey, The Electricity Generation

    Company (EUAS) is a state-owned company and carries on as being sole owner of powerplants of which operating rights will be transferred to private companies. At present,

    the EUAS still controls 83.7% of the total installed capacity of 40,161 MW, and the

    remaning capacity of 6,883 MW belongs to only the IPPs (2,782 MW) and autoproducers

    (4,101 MW), which are considered in the independent electricity market (TEIAS, 2006).

    Besides these models, the turnkey implementation of plant projects on a full-financing

    basis through joint protocols is now the most efficient and succesful way of awardingand implementing large-scale energy plant projects in Turkey. For example, in addition

    to the present BO and BOT power plants with a total installed capacity of 6,102 MW

    and 2,449 MW, respectively, like other future projects, the one for the first nuclear power

    plant of Turkey to be constructed in Sinop on the Black Sea coast, possibly, up to 2013

    can be also carried out on a turnkey basis such as Bursa Natural Gas Thermal Plant andAfsin Elbistan-B Lignite Fired Power Plant with a nominal capacity of 1,432 MW and

    1,440 MW, respectively, which are in operation (EUAS, 2006).

    Energy Supply and Demand in Turkey

    Due to the energy plans projected by the MENR, the mean yearly values of increasingdemands within the next ten years are in two categorieshigh, 8.4% and low, 6.3%

    (MENR, 2006). In relation to the energy supply and demand in Turkey, the general data

    is shown in Table 1. Following the high demand scenario, the current per capita energy

    consumption is far below the world average and at least three times lower than the other

    European countries consumption. On the other hand, the predictions indicate that, in2020, per capita consumption in Turkey (5,781 kWh) will just reach the level of the

    present consumption of todays developed countries (TEIAS, 2006).

    Table 1

    Energy supply and demand in Turkey


    Data 2000 2003 2005 2007 2010 2013 2015 2020

    Population (106) 67.4 70.7 72.8 74.9 77.9 80.6 82.3 86.4

    Primary energy supply (Mtoe) 81.3 84.0 92.4 106.3 126.3 151.0 169.5 282.2

    (TWh) 134.3 166.4 199.6 241.7 278.3 352.2 407.2 543.9

    Final energy demand (Mtoe) 60.5 79.0 74.2 83.5 99.4 118.0 131.1 224.0

    Installed capacity (MW) 27,264 35,587 36,824 41,817 48,694 61,622 71,470 96,348

    Electricity supply (TWh) 128.3 141.2 161.0 190.7 242.0 306.1 356.2 499.5

    Per capita (kWh) 1,903 1,997 2,090 2,546 3,106 3,797 4,328 5,781




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  • For Sustainable Development 359

    Turkeys energy supply and demand by source are given Tables 2 and 3. As shown

    in Table 4, Turkey has no big oil and gas reserves and is dependent on imported energy.

    The main domestic energy sources are hydraulic, coal, geothermal, wind, biomass, and

    solar, but tapped far below potential. The majority of Turkeys coal production, which is

    lignite at around 94% of total domestic coal, goes to lignite-fired power plants. It is also

    expected that the countrys first nuclear power plant will begin to generate electricity in2013, but there are still numerous obstacles facing the plans for a power plant (DPT,

    Table 2

    Primary energy supply by source (%)


    Data 2000 2002 2005 2007 2010 2013

    Coal 30.6 27.1 27.8 29.0 27.9 29.3

    Hydro 3.3 3.7 3.9 4.3 3.9 4.1Natural gas 16.9 20.6 24.1 26.6 29.6 28.7

    Nuclear 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8

    Oil 39.7 39.3 37.0 33.2 32.8 30.9

    Other 9.5 9.3 7.2 6.9 5.8 5.2

    Table 3

    Final energy demand by source (%)


    Energy resource 2000 2002 2003 2010 2020

    Coal 21.8 19.9 20.9 20.5 36.0

    Electricity 13.7 14.8 14.6 17.7 18.9

    Natural gas 8.4 10.7 12.4 16.4 10.9

    Oil 43.9 42.7 41.3 35.7 27.6Other 12.2 11.9 10.8 9.7 6.6

    Table 4

    Domestic primary energy supply by source (%)


    Energy resource 2000 2002 2005 2007 2010 2013 2015 2020

    Coal 49.5 47.4 51.3 57.1 61.9 59.3 44.5 40.6Hydro 9.9 11.8 13.4 13.9 13.3 13.8 10.9 9.3

    Natural gas 2.2 1.5 1.6 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.1

    Nuclear 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.1 22.2 29.1

    Oil 10.8 10.3 8.4 6.0 4.3 2.8 0.4 0.2

    Other 27.6 29.0 25.3 22.1 19.9 17.5 21.6 20.7




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    Table 5

    Electricity supply by source (%)


    Energy resource 2000 2003 2005 2007 2010 2013 2015 2020

    Coal 30.6 23.0 27.3 32.0 27.3 26.9 26.5 32.1

    Hydro 24.7 25.1 26.1 28.1 23.7 23.6 23.1 22.0

    Natural gas 37.0 45.2 41.3 37.8 44.1 41.9 37.7 33.4

    Nuclear 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.4 8.9 6.3Oil 7.5 6.5 5.2 0.1 2.9 2.2 1.9 1.3

    Other 0.2 0.2 0.1 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.9 1.9

    2006). Consumption of natural gas has...