# fileprocessing lec-7

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File Processing & Organization Course No: 5901227-3 Lecture 7 B-Trees (Continued)

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File Processing & OrganizationCourse No: 5901227-3

Lecture 7

B-Trees (Continued)

Inserting a key into a B-tree in a single pass down the tree

• The B-TREE-INSERT procedure uses B-TREE-SPLIT-CHILD to guarantee that the recursion never descends to a full node.

B-TREE-INSERT(T, k)1 r ← root[T]2 if n[r] = 2t - 13 then s ← ALLOCATE-NODE()4 root[T] ← s5 leaf[s] ← FALSE6 n[s] ← 07 c1[s] ← r8 B-TREE-SPLIT-CHILD(s, 1, r)9 B-TREE-INSERT-NONFULL(s, k)10 else B-TREE-INSERT-NONFULL(r, k)

• Lines 3-9 handle the case in which the root node ris full: the root is split and a new node s (havingtwo children) becomes the root. Splitting the rootis the only way to increase the height of a B-tree.Figure 1 illustrates this case.

• The procedure finishes by calling BTREE-INSERT-NONFULL to perform the insertion of key k in thetree rooted at the nonfull root node.

Figure 1

• Splitting the root with t = 4. Root node r is split in two, and anew root node s is created. The new root contains the mediankey of r and has the two halves of r as children.

• The B-tree grows in height by one when the root is split.

B-TREE-INSERT-NONFULL

• B-TREE-INSERT-NONFULL(x, k)1 i ← n[x]2 if leaf[x]3 then while i ≥ 1 and k < keyi[x]4 do keyi+1[x] ← keyi[x]5 i ← i - 16 keyi+1[x] ← k7 n[x] ← n[x] + 18 DISK-WRITE(x)9 else while i ≥ 1 and k < keyi[x]

10 do i ← i - 1

11 i ← i + 1

13 if n[ci[x]] = 2t - 1

14 then B-TREE-SPLIT-CHILD(x, i, ci[x])

15 if k> keyi[x]

16 then i ← i + 1

17 B-TREE-INSERT-NONFULL(ci[x], k)

• Lines 3-8 handle the case in which x is a leaf nodeby inserting key k into x. If x is not a leaf node,then we must insert k into the appropriate leafnode in the subtree rooted at internal node x.

• In this case, lines 9-11 determine the child of x towhich the recursion descends.

• Lines 13-16 guarantee that the procedure neverrecurses to a full node.

• Line 17 then recurses to insert k into theappropriate subtree.

Deleting a key from a B-tree

• Just as we had to ensure that a node didn'tget too big due to insertion, we must ensurethat a node doesn't get too small duringdeletion

Deleting a key from a B-tree

• Delete key B from a B-Tree with t=3.

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A B C E F H I

Deleting a key from a B-tree

We want to delete key F from a B-Tree with t =3.

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Deleting a key from a B-tree

We want to delete key F from a B-Tree with t =3.

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Deleting a key from a B-tree

We want to delete key F from a B-Tree with t =3.

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Deleting a key from a B-tree

We want to delete key S from a B-Tree with t=3.

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We want to delete key S from a B-Tree with t=3.

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We want to delete key U from a B-Tree with t=3.

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Deleting a key from a B-tree

• We want to delete I from a B-Tree with t =3.

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• We want to delete I from a B-Tree with t =3.

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• We want to delete U from a B-Tree with t =3.

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