Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Computing in Saudi ... ?· Factors Affecting the Adoption of…

Download Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Computing in Saudi ... ?· Factors Affecting the Adoption of…

Post on 10-Nov-2018

212 views

Category:

Documents

0 download

TRANSCRIPT

<ul><li><p>Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud </p><p>Computing in Saudi Arabias Government Sector </p><p>Majed Alsanea </p><p>BSc, MSc </p><p>Goldsmiths College </p><p>Department of Computing </p><p>University of London </p><p>This dissertation is submitted for the partial fulfilment of the degree of </p><p>Doctor of Philosophy </p><p>2015 </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>1 </p><p>ABSTRACT </p><p>In an economic recession, cloud computing technology can play a significant role in </p><p>public organisations and private sector companies since it decreases the cost of using </p><p>information technology (IT) services besides offering several other benefits. Cloud </p><p>computing technology is not currently used extensively in the public sector </p><p>organisations, specifically in the case of Saudi Arabia for various reasons and factors. </p><p>The aim of this study is to identify and understand these factors that may affect the </p><p>adoption of cloud computing in the Saudi government sector; to understand the </p><p>theoretical background of this problem by proposing a conceptual model; and to help </p><p>and guide the Saudi government organisations to adopt cloud computing by proposing </p><p>a practical implementation roadmap. </p><p>This study has used a mixed-method research approach which consists of two phases </p><p>in collecting and analysing the data. The first phase, an online survey was conducted </p><p>and theoretically designed based on the literature survey. 169 respondents </p><p>participated from four government organisations, the educational sector, and </p><p>independent consultants. The quantitative analyses of the data were processed from </p><p>descriptive and one-way frequency statistics to inferential and regression analysis. </p><p>Nineteen hypotheses were tested. The quantitative data were analysed to identify the </p><p>factors that may affect the adoption of cloud computing and to measure the significance </p><p>of these factors. Based on that, the hypotheses of this research were tested and verified. </p><p> The second phase, a qualitative study was conducted by using a multiple case study </p><p>approach. The qualitative data were collected by conducting interviews with key </p><p>people in the government organisations in order to analyse deeply and understand the </p><p>nature of the problem then to find the potential solution that will lead to the adoption </p><p>of cloud computing. Four Saudi organisations were chosen to participate in this study. </p><p>The data were analysed by using a thematic analysis approach. The examined factors </p><p>were classified into three main categories: the organisational and technological </p><p>context; the environmental and external pressures; and the perceived benefits. </p><p>This study contributes to the knowledge by: conducting a comprehensive survey of the </p><p>literature that lead to identifying the potential factors that may affect the adoption of </p><p>cloud computing; the study also found a theoretical model lacking that addressed the </p><p>influences and challenges in the adoption of cloud computing and proposes a novel </p><p>conceptual model that helps to better understand these factors; moreover, a practical </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>2 </p><p>roadmap is developed to guide the government organisations to adopt cloud computing </p><p>in an effective efficient way in order to bridge the gap between theory and practice. </p><p>The findings of this study are sequentially divided into two stages. In the first stage, the </p><p>quantitative data were analysed to identify the factors that may effect on the adoption </p><p>of cloud computing and to measure the significance of these factors. Based on that, the </p><p>hypotheses of this research were tested and verified. In the second stage, a qualitative </p><p>data were collected by conducting interviews with key people in the government </p><p>organisations in order to dig deeply and understand the nature of the problem, and to </p><p>find the potential solution that will lead to adopt the cloud computing. </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>3 </p><p>DECLARATION </p><p>This study is my own work and some of the results and works contained herein have </p><p>been published, presented, and submitted in the following forms: </p><p>Journal Papers </p><p>1. Majed Alsanea, Jennifer Barth, Factors Affecting the Adoption of Cloud Computing </p><p>in the Government Sector: A Case Study of Saudi Arabia, Journal of Computer Science </p><p>and Information Technology. (Published) </p><p>2. Majed Alsanea, Jennifer Barth, David Wainwright, "A Review of Cloud Computing </p><p>Technology: IS Theories and Models A Government Organisation's Perspective", </p><p>Information Processing &amp; Management. (Submitted) </p><p>3. Majed Alsanea and David Wainwright "Identifying The Determinants Of Cloud </p><p>Computing Adoption In A Government Sector A Case Study Of Saudi Organisation, </p><p>"International Journal of Business and Management Studies", Vol 6, No 2, 2014 ISSN: </p><p>1309-8047 (Online), October 2013. (Published) </p><p>4. Hosam F. El-Sofany, Majed Alsanea, and Khalid F. Al-Otaibi, "Data Exchange Model </p><p>of Patient Records in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Using Cloud Computing," International </p><p>Journal of Innovation, Management and Technology vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 580-589 , 2012. </p><p>(Published) </p><p>Conference Papers </p><p>5. Majed Alsanea, David Wainwright "Investigating the Main Factors Effecting Cloud </p><p>Computing Adoption" 7th Saudi Students Scientific Conference-UK, Feb 2014. </p><p>6. Majed Alsanea, David Wainwright "Identifying the Determinants of Cloud </p><p>Computing Adoption in the Saudi Government Sector", The Third International </p><p>Conference on Business, Management, Economics and Finance", October 2013. </p><p>7. Majed Alsanea, "Developing a Decision Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption </p><p>in a Government Sector", UK Academy for Information System conference, Oxford </p><p>University, PhD Consortium, Feb 2013. </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>4 </p><p>ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS </p><p>First of all, I thank Allah for giving me the strength and determination to complete this </p><p>research. I am grateful to my dear mother who prayed and supported me and to my </p><p>brother Mr. Hamzah Alqurashi for his financially and morally support. </p><p>Academically, I thank my supervisor Dr. Jenifer Barth, who has been a wonderful </p><p>supervisor and she has guided me with patience and wisdom. Also, special thanks to </p><p>my ex-supervisor Professor David Wainwright for things that he did to me. </p><p>Additionally, I thank all the people who cooperated with me by letting me interview </p><p>them. My research would not be possible without their cooperation. My familys </p><p>support has also been very helpful. My wife supported me during my research work </p><p>and dedicated herself to taking care of our family. I also thank all the people who have </p><p>helped and supported me during my research work. </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>5 </p><p>CONTENTS </p><p>ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................................................................. 1 DECLARATION ......................................................................................................................................................... 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ......................................................................................................................................... 4 CONTENTS ................................................................................................................................................................. 5 LIST OF TABLES .................................................................................................................................................... 10 LIST OF FIGURES .................................................................................................................................................. 13 1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 16 </p><p>1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE STUDY .............................................................................................................. 17 </p><p>1.2 RESEARCH BACKGROUND ....................................................................................................................... 18 </p><p>1.3 RESEARCH QUESTIONS ........................................................................................................................... 20 </p><p>1.4 AIMS ........................................................................................................................................................... 20 </p><p>1.5 OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................................................... 20 </p><p>1.6 THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY ........................................................................................................ 21 </p><p>1.7 CONTEXT OF THE RESEARCH ................................................................................................................. 22 </p><p>1.8 STRUCTURE OF THE THESIS ................................................................................................................... 23 </p><p>Chapter 1: Introduction to the Study ............................................................................................................. 23 </p><p>Chapter 2: Literature Review ............................................................................................................................ 23 </p><p>Chapter 3: Development of Conceptual Framework ................................................................................ 23 </p><p>Chapter 4: Research Methodology................................................................................................................... 23 </p><p>Chapter 5: Survey Research Findings ............................................................................................................. 23 </p><p>Chapter 6: Case Studies Analysis and Findings ......................................................................................... 24 </p><p>Chapter 7: Discussion and Research Synthesis ........................................................................................... 24 </p><p>Chapter 8: Conclusions and Further Work ................................................................................................... 24 </p><p>1.9 CHAPTER SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ 24 </p><p>2 LITERATURE REVIEW .............................................................................................................................. 26 </p><p>2.1 INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................................... 27 </p><p>2.1.1 Definition of Cloud Computing ........................................................................................................ 27 </p><p>2.2 UNDERSTANDING CLOUD COMPUTING ................................................................................................. 28 </p><p>2.2.1 Cloud Computing Deployment Models ......................................................................................... 29 </p><p>2.2.2 Cloud Computing Service Model ..................................................................................................... 31 </p><p>2.2.3 Key Characteristics of Cloud Computing ..................................................................................... 34 </p><p>2.2.4 Evaluation of the Need for the Adoption of Cloud Computing ............................................ 37 </p><p>2.2.5 Advantages of Cloud Computing .................................................................................................... 38 </p><p>2.2.6 Disadvantages of Cloud Computing .............................................................................................. 40 </p><p>2.2.7 Issues about the Adoption of Cloud Computing ........................................................................ 42 </p><p>2.2.8 Cloud Computing Deployment Models for Government ........................................................ 45 </p><p>2.3 THE STATE OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN GOVERNMENT ....................................................................... 47 </p><p>2.3.1 The State of Cloud Computing in the UK Government ........................................................... 47 </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>6 </p><p>2.3.2 The State of Cloud Computing in Other Countries ................................................................... 49 </p><p>2.3.3 The State of Cloud Computing in the Saudi Government ...................................................... 55 </p><p>2.4 MAJOR CHALLENGES FACING GOVERNMENT IN IMPLEMENTING CLOUD COMPUTING ................ 57 </p><p>2.5 ANALYSIS OF RELEVANT STUDIES ......................................................................................................... 59 </p><p>2.5.1 Technological Drivers ......................................................................................................................... 60 </p><p>2.5.2 Organisational Drivers ....................................................................................................................... 61 </p><p>2.5.3 Environmental Drivers ....................................................................................................................... 62 </p><p>2.6 CRITIQUE OF RELEVANT LITERATURE: USERS ACCEPTANCE OF CLOUD COMPUTING IN SAUDI ARABIA (SAAD T. ALHARBI) ................................................................................................................................... 62 </p><p>2.7 CRITICAL REVIEW FINDINGS.................................................................................................................. 63 </p><p>2.8 CHAPTER SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ 65 </p><p>3 DEVELOPMENT OF CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ........................................................................... 66 </p><p>3.1 THEORIES AND MODELS OF THE ADOPTION OF IS INNOVATIONS ................................................... 67 </p><p>3.1.1 Technology-Organisation-Environment (TOE) Framework ............................................... 68 </p><p>3.1.2 Theory of the Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) .............................................................................. 70 </p><p>3.1.3 Institutional Theory ............................................................................................................................. 71 </p><p>3.1.4 Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) .......................................................................................... 72 </p><p>3.1.5 Iacovou et al. (1995) Model .............................................................................................................. 73 </p><p>3.1.6 Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) ............................................................................................. 75 </p><p>3.1.7 Integrating DOI, Institutional Theory, and TOE ....................................................................... 75 </p><p>3.2 REVIEW OF FACTORS AFFECTING THE ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGY .............................................. 79 </p><p>3.3 THEME 1: TECHNOLOGY AND ORGANISATIONAL READINESS .......................................................... 84 </p><p>3.4 THEME 2: ENVIRONMENTAL AND EXTERNAL PRESSURE ................................................................. 84 </p><p>3.5 THEME 3: PERCEIVED BENEFITS .......................................................................................................... 85 </p><p>3.6 THE PROPOSED CONCEPTUAL MODEL ................................................................................................. 86 </p><p>3.6.1 An Integrative Conceptual Model ................................................................................................... 87 </p><p>3.6.2 Research Model and Hypotheses Concerning Cloud Computing Adoption .................... 87 </p><p>3.6.3 Validation of the Proposed Conceptual Model in Fieldwork ............................................... 91 </p><p>3.7 CHAPTER SUMMARY ................................................................................................................................ 92 </p><p>4 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY................................................................................................................... 93 </p><p>4.1 SELECTION OF AN APPROPRIATE RESEARCH APPROACH .................................................................. 94 </p><p>4.2 RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY ......................................................................................................................... 94 </p><p>4.3 SELECTED RESEARCH PHILOSOPHY ...................................................................................................... 97 </p><p>4.4 QUALITATIVE AND QUANTITATIVE RESEARCH ................................................................................... 98 </p><p>4.5 USE OF MIXED METHODS RESEARCH ................................................................................................ 100 </p><p>4.5.1 Explanatory Design............................................................................................................................ 104 </p><p>4.5.2 Quantitative Phase ............................................................................................................................. 105 </p><p>4.5.3 Qualitative Phase ................................................................................................................................ 105 </p><p>4.6 ADOPTION OF THE SURVEY METHOD ................................................................................................ 106 </p></li><li><p>Chapter 1: Introduction </p><p>7 </p><p>4.7 ADOPTION OF CASE STUDY METHOD ................................................................................................ 107 </p><p>4.7.1 Selection of Multiple Case Studies ................................................................................................ 108 </p><p>4.8 RESEARCH STRATEGY .......................................................................................................................... 110 </p><p>4.9 PHASE 1: QUANTITATIVE STRATEGY: USING SURVEY .................................................................... 110 </p><p>4.9.1 Questionnaire Development ........................................................................................................... 110 </p><p>4.9.2 Survey Pilot Test ................................................................................................................................. 111 </p><p>4.9.3 Questionnaire Translation .............................................................................................................. 112 </p><p>4.9.4 Survey Protocol ................................................................................................................................... 114 </p><p>4.9.5 Quantitative: Data Analysis Methods ......................................................................................... 114 </p><p>4.10 PHASE 2: QUALITATIVE STRATEGY: CASE STUDY METHOD ......................................................... 115