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Facilitation Basic concepts, techniques and challenges of facilitation for face-to-face meetings Peter Pfeiffer, PhD, PMP, CKM [email protected] June 2009

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Basic concepts, techniques and challenges of facilitation for face-to-face meetings.

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  • This is the property of the Project Management Institute and may not be reproduced or disseminated without the expressed written permission of PMI.

    Facilitation

    Basic concepts, techniques and challenges of facilitation for face-to-face meetings

    Peter Pfeiffer, PhD, PMP, CKM

    [email protected]

    June 2009

  • This is the property of the Project Management Institute and may not be reproduced or disseminated without the expressed written permission of PMI.

    Context of Facilitation

    What is Facilitation?

    Key Elements of Facilitation

    Communication

    Visualization

    Teamwork

    Challenges for the Facilitator

    Content of the Presentation

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    Why is Facilitation relevant for organizations?

    Teams always have to deal with:

    Sharing goals and objectives;

    Complex communication;

    Interpersonal relationships;

    Context of the Facilitation

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    A process of decision-making guided by a facilitator who insures that all affected individuals and groups are involved in a meaningful way and that the decisions are based on their input and made to achieve their mutual interests.

    Facilitators may be neutral outside third parties or community leaders trained in the process.

    http://www.nymir.org/zoning/Glossary.html#F

    What is Facilitation?

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    Communication

    The Key Elements of the Facilitation

    Teamwork

    Visualization

  • This is the property of the Project Management Institute and may not be reproduced or disseminated without the expressed written permission of PMI.

    What is Communication?

    A process in which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviors.

    The combination of the symbols, signs and behaviors is called message.

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    The s

    ende

    r has

    an id

    ea.

    He/sh

    e tran

    sform

    s it in

    to

    symbo

    ls (w

    ords,

    gestu

    res, e

    tc.)

    which

    he/sh

    e tran

    smits

    .

    The symbols are received andprocessed by his/her

    interlocutor.

    The receiver interprets and understands thethoughts and feelings and confirms to the sender that the message was received and understood.

    Communication Model

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    Four sides of the message

    Objective content

    Ap

    peal

    Relationship

    Sel

    f-re

    vela

    tio

    n

    Message

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    Visualization to support efficient Communication

    To visualize means:

    turn visual, convert something abstract into a mental or real image.

    turn something visible through the use of appropriate means.

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    How does Facilitation with Visualization work?

    Provide physical space that helps to create an open and transparent atmosphere and that allows an easy interaction between people (semicircle).

    Establish a work program that focuses on few, but fundamental issues.

    A facilitator has to conduct the process.

    Pin boards, colored cards, markers and pins are helpful.

    The ideas are presented visually for their discussion, approval or modification.

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    The most commonly used techniques:

    Structured Questions

    Card Questions

    Call-Out-Questions

    Single-Dot-Questions

    Flash Light

    Application on existing tools

    Recommendations for Wording the Questions:

    P ersonalA ctivatingS hortC oncreteO pen(ended)

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    Example for Structured Question: Introduction

    Name /Organization

    My experiencein Leadership

    My expecta-tion from thisWorkshop ...

    What shouldnot happenhere ...

    My contri-buition will

    be ...

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    What do you understand by Sustainable Development?

    What are your main challenges in

    volunteer Leadership?

    Your suggestions to improve our processes

    Examples Card Question: Creating a common definition, survey of experiences and opinions

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    Proceeding for Card Question:

    What are your main challenges in

    volunteer Leadership?

    1. Formulate and present the issue to be treated.

    2. Ask the participants to respond, individually to write down on acard his/her own opinion or experience.

    3. Collect the cards and expose all the answers on the pin board, without regarding the authorship.

    4. Read loudly all answers and clarify those that could raise doubts.

    5. Cluster the answers by similarity or affinity, together with participants.

    6. Create categories, headings or thematic titles.

    7. Discuss the results, considering the similarities or differences.

    8. Draw conclusion of the result for the team work.

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    Organizing data

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    Example Application on tools: Construction of a WBS

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    There is a common center of attention created.

    The contributions are registered and dont get lost.

    Visualized, complex issues can be structured more easily and achieve similar interpretations.

    The author has to choose between information more or less relevant.

    Discussions become more objective and shorter.

    Participation in discussions and searching solution improves substantially.

    Advantages of Visualization

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    Manage the process

    How can the How can the management process be management process be

    improved to achieve better improved to achieve better results?results?

    Choose the appropriate approach

    Which is the Which is the best approach to best approach to

    deal with the deal with the task?task?

    Help to comprehend the task

    What are the tasksWhat are the tasksto be accomplished?to be accomplished?

    Facilitate to produce

    Facilitatethe visualdialogue

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    Levels of social Behavior

    Resources

    Theories

    Deadlines

    Materials

    Hierarchy Tasks

    Rules and norms

    Proceedings

    Objective Information

    Love

    Joy

    Sadness

    Hate

    Sympathy

    Affection

    Hope

    Status

    Ambition

    Desires

    Values

    Fear

    Shame

    Insecurity

    Mistrust

    Rejection

    Antipathy

    Hidden rules

    Taboos

    Anxiety

    Technical level

    Psycho-social level

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    The Facilitators Challenges

    Beyond the knowledge and skills of facilitation techniques, the greatest challenges are related to people, their characteristics, behaviors and attitudes.

    To deal with these challenges there is no technological solution available. There is no hardware nor software available to explore the lower part of the iceberg.

    What you need is peopleware!

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    Facilitators Challenge:Deal with different personalities

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    Facilitators Challenge:Guarantee good communication

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    Facilitators Challenge:Help to create common goals

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    Facilitators Challenge:Understand technical content

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    Facilitators Challenge:Motivate people

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    Facilitators Challenge:Deal with conflicts

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    Facilitators Challenge:Keep everybody focused

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    Facilitators Challenge:Build up commitment

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    Facilitators Challenge:Deal with time constraints

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    Facilitators Challenge:Keep the balance

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    Thank you for your attention!