engaging students in inquiry: tales from an undergraduate geology laboratory-based course
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Engaging Students in Inquiry:Tales From an UndergraduateGeology Laboratory-BasedCourse
XORNAM S. APEDOELearning Research & Development Center, University of Pittsburgh, 3939 OHara St.,Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA
Received 30 May 2007; revised 11 October 2007, 17 October 2007;accepted 21 October 2007
DOI 10.1002/sce.20254Published online 27 December 2007 in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com).
ABSTRACT: This paper reports the synthesis of three case studies of students engagementin inquiry-based learning activities in an upper-level undergraduate geology course. Detailsof how students engaged in scientific questions, gave priority to evidence, formulatedexplanations, evaluated explanations, and communicated and justified their findings arepresented. Data for this study included classroom observations and fieldnotes of classroompractices, questionnaires, archival data (e.g., student work samples), and audiotapes andtranscripts of interviews conducted with the student participants throughout the course. Thefindings suggest that although these students were able to successfully appropriate inquirypractices (e.g., giving priority to evidence), it was not without its challenges (e.g., perceivedlack of guidance). A detailed discussion of the ways in which students were successful,and where they had challenges engaging in inquiry is presented, with the goal of helpingdirect practitioners and researchers to strategies whereby students inquiry experiences canbe improved. C 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Sci Ed 92:631 663, 2008
Correspondence to: Xornam S. Apedoe; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgContract grant sponsor: National Science Foundation.Contract grant number: 0304895.Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this paper are those of the
author and do not necessarily reflect the views of the National Science Foundation.
C 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
. . . We were being prepared for applications of our knowledge as opposed to just spillingit out, like, as if we were taking a test on the lecture. . . . Thats more of what, from what Iunderstand, geologists are expected to be able to do in their jobs, as opposed to just beingable to regurgitate loads of information on the paper.
(Jake, interview, December 2004)
INTRODUCTIONFor far too many years, the emphasis and goal of science education has primarily been
to help students acquire factual knowledge. Science instruction, in a variety of disciplinesand at all educational levels, typically has focused on covering content from the textbook,exposing students to a plethora of facts but rarely, if ever, engaging students in the processof science (National Research Council [NRC], 1996b). This trend is especially evident atthe undergraduate level (Brown, Abell, Demir, & Schmidt, 2006).
In the quote above, Jake, a student, reflects on his experience in an undergraduate geologycourse that departed from the traditional didactic method of teaching science. As in otherdisciplines, in recent years there has been a revolution in geosciences education promotinga reconceptualization of teaching and learning in both its goals and methods. Blueprint forChange: A Report From The National Conference on the Revolution in Earth and SpaceScience Education (Barstow & Geary, 2002) details this bold new vision for geoscienceseducation. Blueprint for Change recommends that geosciences educational experiencesshould use inquiry-based learning and visualization technologies to help students developthinking skills such as inquiry, visual literacy, and the ability to apply knowledge andproblem solving to a range of substantive, real-world issues (Barstow & Geary, 2002).This paper reports the findings of an investigation of student engagement in inquiry-basedlearning in an undergraduate geology course that utilized teaching strategies supportive ofthe recommendations found in Blueprint for Change.
INQUIRY-BASED LEARNINGThere has been a renewed interest in the use of inquiry-based learning in science class-
rooms at all grade levels since the National Research Council released the National ScienceEducation Standards (NSES) slightly more than a decade ago (NRC, 1996a). Inquiry asa teaching methodology and learning experience emphasizes providing students with op-portunities to engage in activities very similar to those required for real-world scientificresearch. When learners are engaged in inquiry-based learning environments they should(NRC, 2000) (a) be engaged in scientifically oriented questions; (b) give priority to evidence,allowing them to develop and evaluate explanations that address scientifically oriented ques-tions; (c) formulate explanations from evidence to address scientifically oriented questions;(d) evaluate their explanations in light of alternative explanations, particularly those reflect-ing scientific understanding; and (e) communicate and justify their proposed explanations.These five elements are essential characteristics of an inquiry-based learning environmentand also describe the inquiry practices that students should strive to appropriate.
The five essential characteristics of inquiry-based learning environments can be appliedacross various scientific disciplines. However, it is important to note that inquiry is not acontext-free activity. Every academic discipline has its own language, theories, and meth-ods for conducting inquiry; therefore, learners must learn the unique language, theories,and methodologies for doing inquiry in their particular discipline (Lim, 2004). Thus, thequestions that students investigate, the data that count as evidence, the type and structureof explanations formulated, and so on will be influenced by the specific discipline thatstudents are working within.
STUDENT ENGAGEMENT IN INQUIRY-BASED LEARNING 633
Geology is an example of a discipline that is unique in its theories and methods ofconducting inquiry. Although inquiry in the geosciences shares some characteristics withmore experimental sciences such as physics or chemistry, the geosciences are fundamentallyhistorical and interpretive (Ault, 1998). The goal of geological reasoning is not primarily toidentify general laws, as is the case with physics (Froedman, 1995), but rather interpretationof geologic phenomena based on observations, warranted inferences, and integration orreconciliation of independent lines of inquiry (Ault, 1998). These interpretations resultin the description of historical sequences of events, sometimes accompanied by a causalmodel, for the occurrences of the phenomena (Ault, 1998). Although the questions, types ofevidence, and explanations one finds in a geology classroom will be the result of engagingin inquiry that is distinctly historical or interpretive, the five essential characteristics ofinquiry-based learning as described in the NSES are still applicable, as they provide ageneral framework for structuring inquiry activities in the classroom.
Although the NSES were aimed specifically at K-12 students and teachers, the recom-mendations contained in the reforms can and should be generalized to college scienceteaching (Ingram, Lehman, Love, & Polacek, 2004; McIntosh, 2000). As more students areexposed to inquiry-based learning approaches in their K-12 science education, the necessityfor postsecondary science instructors to adapt their teaching approaches increases. Studentswill soon be entering college and university science courses with strong inquiry skills andraised expectations for being engaged in science, and their instructors must be ready tomeet the challenge. In addition, engaging students in inquiry activities throughout theirundergraduate careers is of utmost importance if students are to graduate with the 21st-century outcomes that are expected, such as robust scientific-mental models, the capacityfor solving ill-structured problems, sustained intellectual curiosity, and a commitment tolifelong learning (Hersh & Merrow, 2005).
RESEARCH ON INQUIRY: PAST AND PRESENTStudies of the inquiry-based curricula and programs from the 1960s and beyond have been
very supportive of inquiry approaches for supporting student learning (e.g., Shymansky,Hedges, & Woodworth, 1990). To date, research on inquiry-based learning has focused ondemonstrating the benefits of inquiry for the development of students cognitive abilitiessuch as critical thinking, scientific reasoning, and understanding of scientific concepts.Research on inquiry in the geosciences has reported similar findings (e.g., Orion & Kali,2005). However, with the current emphasis on learning not only scientific knowledge butalso the processes and procedures that produced such knowledge (inquiry), educationalresearchers have become increasingly interested in students understanding and ability toappropriate scientific inquiry practices (Kanari & Millar, 2004). It is important that weknow what is being done, and how it is being done, when students are engaged in inquiryactivities (Wheeler, 2000), so that we can develop guidelines for successfully incorporatinginquiry activities into classrooms at all educational levels.
Although there is currently little research examining how students are engaging in in-quiry and appropriating specific inquiry practices, research studies like those conducted byKrajcik et al. (1998), Hofstein, Shore, and Kipnis (2004), and Kanari and Millar (2004) areexamples of what is needed. While these three noteworthy studies provide much needed in-sight into how students are engaged in inquiry, and what students are doing while engaged ininquiry activities, they focus on students in late elementary, middle, or high school. Researchis still needed to illuminate the experiences of students pursuing inquiry in higher education.