encouraging reflective practice

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  • Encouraging Reflective Practice in

    Pre-Service Literacy and

    Language Teachers in the Student

    Teaching Practicum & Pre-

    Practicum

    Cami Condie, EdD, Francesca Pomerantz, EdD, &

    Melanie Gonzalez, PhD

    European Reading Conference

    June 2017

  • Defining Terms

    Reflective Practice - Learning from the teaching experience by Noticing students learning

    Adjusting in the moment

    Acting based on knowledge of pedagogy, content and students (agency)

    Supervision - Faculty member observing pre-service teacher Practicum = student teaching

    Pre-practicum = early fieldwork experiences prior to student teaching

  • What We Know: Teacher agency

    Definition: The sense of power/control over ones

    teaching and decision-making.

    New teachers have difficulty enacting what was

    learned in teacher preparation into their

    classroom teaching (e.g., Fairbanks, et al, 2010;

    Pomerantz & Condie, 2017).

  • What We Know: Effective

    Teachers

    Teachers need to be adaptive teaching

    expertswho engage in the process of

    self-assessing and strategically adjusting

    their decision-making before, during, and

    after teaching episodes (Soslau, 2012, p.

    768).

  • Our Impetus for this Study:

    Program Evaluation

    Supervisors did not focus on evidence of

    student learning, actionable guidance for

    improvement, or build on prior feedback.

  • Additional Challenges in

    Supervision

    TimingPracticum conferences are short

    and sometimes rushed; there are only three.

    Best practices for supervision are time-

    intensive (e.g., video reflection method;

    Brouwer, 2017, Gelfuso, 2016).

    Building Relationships of TrustSupervisors

    may or may not have established rapport and

    mutual understanding with supervisee prior to

    the three conferences.

  • Purpose & Research Question

    Purpose: To identify supervisory

    tools/methods/protocols that engage pre-

    service teachers in reflective practice.

    Research question: How and in what ways

    do various reflective tools affect

    conversations and thinking of pre-service

    teachers about their teaching practice?

  • Participants

    Two case studies

    Lisaa practicum student in a TESOL program with her practicum supervisor Teaching in her own Kindergarten (age 5-6)

    classroom for English Learners.

    Observations and interviews were part of student teaching evaluation.

    Alia pre-practicum student voluntarily tutoring with her instructor observing Tutoring a 3rd grade student post-course

    Observations and interviews occurred after course and were voluntary.

  • Methodology:

    Three observations and debriefing sessions

    Three conditions:

    Reflective Questions and Transfer Continuum (Pomerantz & Condie, 2017).

    Stimulated Recall (Condie, 2014; Pomerantz& Condie, 2017)

    Additional condition included state required evaluation tool. (CAPCandidate Assessment of Performance)

  • Condition 1: Reflective Questions

    and Transfer Continuum

    Questions regarding background knowledge,

    planning decisions, surprises during the lesson

    Transfer continuum: Where do you believe this

    lesson falls along this continuum?

  • Condition 2: Stimulated Recall, Reflective

    Questions, and Transfer Continuum

    Reflective questions

    Watching short video clips from

    observation and answering this prompt:

    Tell me what you were thinking as you

    were teaching in this segment. Will you

    think aloud what happened and what you

    decided to do?

    Transfer continuum

  • Condition 3: State Evaluation ToolCandidate

    Assessment of Performance (CAP)

    Debriefing Conversation and Evaluation

    Probe for self-reflection: What are your thoughts about how the students responded to the lesson?

    Share areas of Reinforcement (e.g., State impact on students.)

    Share areas of Refinement (e.g., Ask self-reflection question: When developing lessons, how do you decide on the pacing of the lesson so sufficient time is allocated for each segment?

  • CAP Evaluation Domains

    The CAP Rubric addresses 3 Performance

    Standards that include 6 essential

    elements.Standard Essential Element

    Standard I: Curriculum Planning, and

    Assessment

    Well-Structured Lessons

    Adjustments to Practice

    Standard II: Teaching All Students

    Meeting Diverse Needs

    Safe Learning Environment

    High Expectations

    Standard IV: Professional Culture Reflective Practice

  • Example of CAP Rubric Performance

    Descriptors

  • Data Analysis

    Phase 1: Reading transcripts coding for Supervision Styles and identifying adaptive expert behaviors (Soslau, 2012)

    Telling, Active Coaching, Guiding, Inquiry, Reflecting

    Phase 2: Rereading transcripts comparing cases in same condition

    Phase 3: Examining discourse moves in each condition

  • Findings Condition 1:

    Reflective Questions and Transfer Continuum

    Lisa couldnt place her lesson on transfer continuum.

    AliOriginally identified her lesson as Some Transfer, then changed to Some Transformation after discussion. I can plan, but if something goes unplanned, catches

    me off guard. I can definitely bring things Im learning in the classroombut Im not an expert Im hard on myself that Im not doing a good enough job.

  • Findings Condition 1:

    Reflective Questions and Transfer Continuum

    Alis Supervisor

    Active coaching

    Teaching and modeling content and next steps

    Where was student most successful with this part of the lesson? Ali couldnt answer. Supervisor named instructional decisions, modeled thinking, and recommended repeating this part of the lesson again.

  • Discourse

    Moves in

    Transfer

    Continuum

    Questions and Prompts

    Telling What did you notice the student was doing in this part of the

    lesson?

    Naming I see you doing ______ at this point in the lesson.

    As a teacher I tried this strategy. You could do this

    by______.

    Finish this statement: by the end of the lesson my students

    will be able to_____.

    Active coaching How did you prepare for/plan for this lesson?

    How did you feel the lesson went?

    What went well?

    What would you change?

    How did the learners respond to the lesson?

    What will you do next because of what you learned today?

    Where was the student most successful in this part of the

    lesson?

    What problems were most challenging for the student?

  • Findings Condition 2:

    Stimulated Video Recall

    Lisa

    Novice behavior: Noticing not always productive I'm like, sometimes I look so stern. I don't know. I also think

    they have fun.

    Adaptive expert behaviors: Displayed self-regulation (The only time in her three conferences.) Recognizes problems.

    I guess the vocabulary that I thought was really important in the retelling piece was the sequential, but I throw all this other vocabulary in there because I want to expose them to it.

    Lisas Supervisor asks guiding questions & provides active coaching and modeling in response.

  • Findings Condition 2:

    Stimulated Video Recall Ali

    Adaptive expert behaviors: Displays self-regulation, articulates instructional decision-making, developing professional discourse & strategically applying knowledge (from teacher preparation)

    I have to remember that the brainstorming is going to be messy.

    I try to connect everything and show that it has meaning, that we're not just doing this, and I'm trying to make a connection like, this will help you read and write, and you can do all the stuff that you want to do. I think I have to be more interested in what she wants to do, more interested in why reading and writing would matter to herI try to show her that there's a bigger meaning justrather than just, you just are learning how to read and write because the school wants you to read and write.

  • Findings Condition 2:

    Stimulated Video Recall

    Alis Supervisor models noticing

    Points out child (native Arabic speaker) reads

    help as play. Ali didnt notice.

    S: She's reading help as play.

    Ali: Cuz she's going

    S: She's reading right to left.

    Ali: I have to think of her brain and how it's like, my

    natural reaction is to go like this (read left to right),

    but her first response is to go like that (read right to

    left).

  • Discourse

    Moves in

    Stimulated

    Recall

    Questions and Prompts

    Telling

    Naming Finish this statement: by the end of the lesson my students

    will be able to_____.

    Active coaching How did you prepare for/plan for this lesson?

    How did you feel the lesson went?

    What went well?

    What would you change?

    How did the learners respond to the lesson?

    What should a teacher know to teach this lesson?

  • Findings Condition 3:

    CAP (state protocol)

    Start: Active coaching + naming

    Active coaching to prompt student teacher to articulate experience

    Naming when student teacher fails to use discourse of the discipline

    Active coaching + telling

    Active coaching to prompt student teacher to articulate specific disciplinary practices

    Telling for reinforcement

    Telling to identify problems

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