en296 – presentation skills presentation skills – part ii dr. ajith pasqual
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EN296 Presentation Skills
Presentation Skills Part IIDr. Ajith Pasqual
A Checklist for PresentationsStart preparing early - don't wait until the last few days to prepare Think about Your AudienceBe clear about your purposeAre you informing or persuadingUse an Effective IntroductionOrganize your presentation clearly and simplyUse supporting materials to flesh out main pointCompose for the Ear, not for the EyeCreate an Effective ConclusionSound spontaneous, conversational, enthusiastic
Checklist Use Body Language EffectivelyUse Visual Aids to Enhance the MessageAnalyze the EnvironmentCope with Stage Fright by Remembering:it's normal; it can be helpful, everyone feels it
7 PsEngleberg (1994) proposes a 7 P approach to the principles of public speaking. Purpose:- Why are you speaking? What do you want audience members to know, think, believe, or do as a result of your presentationPeople : Who is your audience? How do the characteristics, skills, opinions, and behaviors of your audience affect your purposePlace: Why are you speaking to this group now and in this place? How can you plan and adapt to the logistics of this place. How can you use visual aids to help you achieve your purposePreparation Where and how can you find good ideas and information for your speech? How much and what kind of supporting materials do you need.
7 Ps .Planning: Is there a natural order to the ideas and information you will use? What are the most effective ways to organize your speech in order to adapt it to the purpose, people, place, etc.Personality: How do you become associated with your message in a positive way? What can you do to demonstrate your competence, charisma, and character to the audience? Performance: What form of delivery is best suited to the purpose of your speech. What delivery techniques will make your presentation more effective. How should you practice?
Effective IntroductionsWhat? - overview of presentation (use visual aids if necessary) Why? - purpose of presentation - why subject is important How? - format you will use; what can the audience expect to see & learn Who? - if more than one person, provide introductions and indicate roles
Effective Conclusionsreview, highlight and emphasize - key points, benefits, recommendations draw conclusions - where are we? ... what does all of this mean? ... what's the next step? Remember!! Conclusion is the last part of your presentations. It is this part that audience will be remembering most when the leave.
Summary : 4 Basic Stepsformulate a strategy for the specific audience develop a flexible, flowing structure combined prepared material with an enhancing, not distracting, presentation style; it is important to remember that how you present is as important as what you present. supplement the presentation with confident, informed responses to questions and challenges
Types of Visual AidsVisual aids significantly improve the interest of a presentation. Overhead projection transparencies (OHPs) 35mm slides Computer projection (Powerpoint, applications such as Excel, etc) Video, and film, Real objects - either handled from the speaker's bench or passed around Flip~chart or blackboard - possibly used as a 'scratch-pad' to expand on a point
Visual AidsThink of Your Listeners Listening is much more difficult than reading Listeners listen somewhere between 25% and 50% of the time Information must be taken in on the fly with no backtracking Short-term memory holds only 5 to 7 points People remember only 10% of what they hear versus 50% of what they read
Visual Aids Design to Help People ListenOrganize - provide structure and framework for the data you will present Arrange the visuals so that listeners can easily organize and reconstruct your verbal message list points to be covered and provide a "road map" of how you will get there2. Illustrate - help listeners to visualize - convert data to information paint a picture tell a story make comparisons
Visual Aids 3. Repeat - improve audience reception of data remember that "listeners" listen only 25 to 50% of the time repetition often suggests importanceVisuals Should... Support your communication objective Enhance your verbal message, not detract from it Set tone and emotional content of verbal message with the use of colors and images
Features of Good Visuals - VisibilityYou have to be able to see it to believe it Visuals should be legible to most distant viewer Minimum legibility standards: one inch letter height on screen per 30 feet viewing distance Data needed for legibility calculation Screen width Distance from projector to screen Lens rating of projector (in inches) Distance of most distant viewer from screen
Visibility .. Typewritten copy will not be visible! Enlarge it on copy machine Use 18 point type or larger when laying out transparencies on a computer Limit number of words per line 3 to 4 per line optimal 6 to 7 maximum Limit number of lines per visual Less than 10 per transparency
Features of Good Visuals - ClearInstantly recognizable in context to your verbal message Focus on one idea per visual Avoid too much primary information Use color to focus on key information Directly relate to communication objective Complement verbal message Add impact or tone to message Provide overview or "whole picture"
Features of Visuals - Simple Eliminate extraneous information and clutter Visually simplify using design, color, or overlays
Ways of Adding Variety Combine both left and right brain sensory channels Left brain: words, sentences, symbols Right brain: graphs, charts, symbols, pictures, etc. Add color for emphasis, but beware of color connotations Use movement with transparency pens, overlays, slide dissolves, etc. Change backgrounds to change pace or introduce new topic Change sequence of eye scanning (horizontal, vertical, diagonal) with design
Delivery of Presentation Speak clearly. Don't shout or whisper - judge the acoustics of the room. Don't rush, or talk deliberately slowly. Be natural - although not conversational Deliberately pause at key points - this has the effect of emphasising the importance of a particular point you are making. Avoid jokes - always disastrous unless you are a natural expert To make the presentation interesting, change your delivery speed pitch of voice