egyptian feminism

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Women's Studies report on Feminism in Egypt.


  • 1. Egypt and Feminism Aris Kaleps-Clark

2. Women in Egyptian History

  • Two main areas of focus:
  • Rulers and Royalty
  • Women in Society

3. Rulers

  • Throughout all dynastys, up until Alexander the Great, only four women ever took the mantle of Pharaoh.
    • Queen Nitokerty
    • Queen Sobekneferu
    • Queen Hatshepsut
    • Queen Tausret

1 4. Queen Hatshepsut 1 2 3 5. Royalty

  • Queen Kentkaus
  • Queen Iput I
  • Queen Tiye
  • Queen Nefertiti
  • Queen Nefertari

1 6. Queen Nefertiti 1 4 7. Women in Society

  • Marriage
  • Childbirth & Motherhood
  • Rights
  • Women at Work

1 8. Changes in Egyptian Society

  • War-
    • French Conquest and Napoleon Bonaparte
  • Reform-
    • -Muhammad Ali and Egyptian reform

5 9. Egypt 1919-2010

  • Egyptian Feminist Union (1923-1939)
    • Comparable to the first wave in American Feminism
    • Focused on education, social welfare, and changes in private law in order to provide equality between Egyptian men and women.
    • Critiqued as being to charity based and primarily run by the middle to upper classes.

5 10. Egypt 1919-2010

  • Post WWII Feminism:
    • 1942 Foundation of the Egyptian Feminist Party
    • The Bint El-Nil (daughter of the Nile) was another feminist association created in 1948.

5 11. Egypt 1919-2010

  • In 1952 after a military coups, all political parties were disbanded and the Nasserist regime took control.
  • However, in 1956, the constitution was amended for women to vote and hold political office.
  • Post-Naasserist government, radical groups once more started to form and feminism once more was off and rolling. New groups were formed, with different missions in pursuing justice and equality.
    • New Woman Group
    • Committee for the Defence of Women and Family Rights
    • The Progressive Women's Union
    • Womens Secretariat of the Labor Party
    • The New Woman Research Centre and Bint El Ard (Daughter of the Land) Association

5 12. Egyptian Feminisms

  • Secular Feminism:
    • Firmly believe in grounding their discourse outside of all religion, Muslim, Christian or otherwise, instead focusing on international human rights.
  • Muslim Feminism:
    • Focus on the equality of men and women as dictated in holy texts. Also try to find common ground between sociopolitical and cultural realities according to Islam and human rights.
  • Islamist Feminism:
    • Strives for a society that recognizes and respects the compatibility between the sexes instead of competition.

6 13. Revolution in Egypt

  • In January of 2011, protests began in Egypt to remove dictator Hosni Mubarak.
  • Many Egyptian women took part in the protests and rallied for the resignation of Mubarak.
  • On February 11, 2011, Mubarak stepped out of power and fled the country.

7 14. Closing Thoughts

  • Egypt has a rich history, being one of the first civilizations on this planet. Their struggles have shaped nations. Now, their revolution has inspired millions. As this country creates a new government, perhaps we will see great change come in terms of sex and gender equity.

15. Work Cited

  • (6)"Egypt." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
  • (5)"Feminism in Egypt." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
  • (3)Hatshepsut Statuette. Photograph. Mueseum of Fine Arts, Boston. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
  • (1) Hawass, Zahi A., and Suzanne Mubarak. Silent Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt. New York: Abrams, 2000. Print.
  • Karam, Azza M. Women, Islamisms and the State: Contemporary Feminisms in Egypt. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan [u.a., 1998. Print.
  • (4)Nefertiti. Photograph. Neues Museum. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
  • (2)Queen Hatshepsut. Photograph. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .