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DESCRIPTIONWomen's Studies report on Feminism in Egypt.
- 1. Egypt and Feminism Aris Kaleps-Clark
2. Women in Egyptian History
- Two main areas of focus:
- Rulers and Royalty
- Women in Society
- Throughout all dynastys, up until Alexander the Great, only four women ever took the mantle of Pharaoh.
- Queen Nitokerty
- Queen Sobekneferu
- Queen Hatshepsut
- Queen Tausret
1 4. Queen Hatshepsut 1 2 3 5. Royalty
- Queen Kentkaus
- Queen Iput I
- Queen Tiye
- Queen Nefertiti
- Queen Nefertari
1 6. Queen Nefertiti 1 4 7. Women in Society
- Childbirth & Motherhood
- Women at Work
1 8. Changes in Egyptian Society
- French Conquest and Napoleon Bonaparte
- -Muhammad Ali and Egyptian reform
5 9. Egypt 1919-2010
- Egyptian Feminist Union (1923-1939)
- Comparable to the first wave in American Feminism
- Focused on education, social welfare, and changes in private law in order to provide equality between Egyptian men and women.
- Critiqued as being to charity based and primarily run by the middle to upper classes.
5 10. Egypt 1919-2010
- Post WWII Feminism:
- 1942 Foundation of the Egyptian Feminist Party
- The Bint El-Nil (daughter of the Nile) was another feminist association created in 1948.
5 11. Egypt 1919-2010
- In 1952 after a military coups, all political parties were disbanded and the Nasserist regime took control.
- However, in 1956, the constitution was amended for women to vote and hold political office.
- Post-Naasserist government, radical groups once more started to form and feminism once more was off and rolling. New groups were formed, with different missions in pursuing justice and equality.
- New Woman Group
- Committee for the Defence of Women and Family Rights
- The Progressive Women's Union
- Womens Secretariat of the Labor Party
- The New Woman Research Centre and Bint El Ard (Daughter of the Land) Association
5 12. Egyptian Feminisms
- Secular Feminism:
- Firmly believe in grounding their discourse outside of all religion, Muslim, Christian or otherwise, instead focusing on international human rights.
- Muslim Feminism:
- Focus on the equality of men and women as dictated in holy texts. Also try to find common ground between sociopolitical and cultural realities according to Islam and human rights.
- Islamist Feminism:
- Strives for a society that recognizes and respects the compatibility between the sexes instead of competition.
6 13. Revolution in Egypt
- In January of 2011, protests began in Egypt to remove dictator Hosni Mubarak.
- Many Egyptian women took part in the protests and rallied for the resignation of Mubarak.
- On February 11, 2011, Mubarak stepped out of power and fled the country.
7 14. Closing Thoughts
- Egypt has a rich history, being one of the first civilizations on this planet. Their struggles have shaped nations. Now, their revolution has inspired millions. As this country creates a new government, perhaps we will see great change come in terms of sex and gender equity.
15. Work Cited
- (6)"Egypt." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
- (5)"Feminism in Egypt." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
- (3)Hatshepsut Statuette. Photograph. Mueseum of Fine Arts, Boston. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
- (1) Hawass, Zahi A., and Suzanne Mubarak. Silent Images: Women in Pharaonic Egypt. New York: Abrams, 2000. Print.
- Karam, Azza M. Women, Islamisms and the State: Contemporary Feminisms in Egypt. Basingstoke, Hampshire: Macmillan [u.a., 1998. Print.
- (4)Nefertiti. Photograph. Neues Museum. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .
- (2)Queen Hatshepsut. Photograph. Wikipedia. Web. 03 Apr. 2011. .