Ecological Building Design Determinants

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<ul><li><p>This article was downloaded by: [UQ Library]On: 01 June 2014, At: 20:57Publisher: Taylor &amp; FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK</p><p>Architectural Engineering and DesignManagementPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/taem20</p><p>Ecological Building Design DeterminantsAli Vakili-Ardebili a b c &amp; Abdel Halim Boussabaine ca Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design (al&amp;d) ,University of Toronto , 230 College Street, Toronto, Ontario,Canada , M5T 1R2b Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering andApplied Science , Ryerson University , 325 Church Street, Toronto,Ontario, Canada , M5B 2K3c School of Architecture, The University of Liverpool , Liverpool,L69 3BX, UKPublished online: 06 Jun 2011.</p><p>To cite this article: Ali Vakili-Ardebili &amp; Abdel Halim Boussabaine (2010) Ecological Building DesignDeterminants, Architectural Engineering and Design Management, 6:2, 111-131</p><p>To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.3763/aedm.2008.0096</p><p>PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLE</p><p>Taylor &amp; Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (theContent) contained in the publications on our platform. However, Taylor &amp; Francis,our agents, and our licensors make no representations or warranties whatsoever as tothe accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of the Content. Any opinionsand views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor &amp; Francis. The accuracy of the Contentshould not be relied upon and should be independently verified with primary sourcesof information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable for any losses, actions, claims,proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoever orhowsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arisingout of the use of the Content.</p><p>This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Anysubstantial or systematic reproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing,systematic supply, or distribution in any form to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms &amp;</p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/taem20http://dx.doi.org/10.3763/aedm.2008.0096</p></li><li><p>Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>UQ</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 20:</p><p>57 0</p><p>1 Ju</p><p>ne 2</p><p>014 </p><p>http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions</p></li><li><p>ARTICLE</p><p>Ecological Building Design DeterminantsAli Vakili-Ardebili1,2,3,* and Abdel Halim Boussabaine3</p><p>1Faculty of Architecture, Landscape and Design (al&amp;d), University of Toronto, 230 College Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5T 1R22Department of Architectural Science, Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Ryerson University, 325 Church Street, Toronto,Ontario, Canada M5B 2K3</p><p>3School of Architecture, The University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3BX, UK</p><p>Abstract</p><p>The sustainable building design process is driven on the basis of a range of design eco-indicators. Consideration</p><p>of a multitude of eco-determinants, such as environment, economy, resources, energy consumption and society</p><p>values in addition to design characteristics and contexts, makes the process of ecological design even more</p><p>complex. A large number of eco-drivers are extracted from the literature and current design practices. To gain</p><p>a better insight on eco-design determinants, a survey focusing on the use of eco-design drivers has been</p><p>conducted with various architects in the UK. The factor analysis method was used to remove redundant data</p><p>from the survey. Through the factor analysis approach, 115 eco-determinants are grouped into six main</p><p>clusters. This article presents the process, analysis and findings of this work. The extracted eco-indicators</p><p>and their associated clusters can be used to improve the process of ecological building design.</p><p>B Keywords Building design drivers; design ecological indicators; eco-building design indicators; eco-efficiency; eco-indicators</p><p>INTRODUCTION</p><p>Many researchers such as Giedion (1980) believe that</p><p>design is function based. The function itself maps into</p><p>space and technology design dimensions. This</p><p>definition is a pre-requisite, but it is not inclusive of</p><p>all the design parameters. Other dimensions and</p><p>contexts such as environmental, socio-economical,</p><p>energy and resources are similarly important in the</p><p>process of design. Since each variable would carry a</p><p>dissimilar level of significance, a different level of</p><p>emphasis is placed on each indicator over the</p><p>design process. Functional adaptability, relations,</p><p>flexibility (Glen, 1994; Slaughter, 2001), durability</p><p>(Kibert et al., 2000; NASA, 2001), safety and health</p><p>(NASA, 2001; ISO 14000, 2005), human and building</p><p>interaction (Du Plessis, 2001), building and</p><p>environment interactions (Langston and Ding, 2001;</p><p>Roaf et al., 2001; Smith, 2001) and environmental</p><p>demands (Fiksel, 1994; Nicholls, 2001) are</p><p>characteristics of design that are considered</p><p>important in sustainable design. Space-related</p><p>attributes are identified as interior spaces (Nicholls,</p><p>2001) and exterior spaces (Nicholls, 2001; Roaf</p><p>et al., 2001): one focuses on spatial relations in a</p><p>building and the other deals with building</p><p>interactions with its surrounding spaces. Issues such</p><p>as built-ability, flexibility (Slaughter, 2001), durability</p><p>and longevity (Kibert et al., 2000; NASA, 2001),</p><p>reliability and usability (Markeset and Kumar, 2003)</p><p>and disassembling (Macozoma, 2002) are</p><p>incorporated in materialization of the building form.</p><p>Architectural style, fashion, society and culture (Du</p><p>Plessis, 2001) are attributes that are also associated</p><p>with spiritual aspects of the form; these aspects are</p><p>those characteristics of design having influence on</p><p>human (end users) emotions and psychosomatic</p><p>concerns. Design service life such as longevity</p><p>(Kibert et al., 2000), maintainability (Blanchard and</p><p>Lowery, 1969; Bhamra et al., 2001; NASA, 2001),</p><p>energy efficiency (Langston and Ding, 2001; Roaf</p><p>B *Corresponding author: E-mail: a.vakili.ardebili@utoronto.ca; a.vakili-ardebili@liverpool.ac.uk</p><p>ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN MANAGEMENT B 2010 B VOLUME 6 B 111131doi:10.3763/aedm.2008.0096 2010 Earthscan ISSN: 1745-2007 (print), 1752-7589 (online) www.earthscan.co.uk/journals/aedm</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>UQ</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 20:</p><p>57 0</p><p>1 Ju</p><p>ne 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>et al., 2001), embodied energy (Roaf et al., 2001),</p><p>eco-efficiency and recycling (Pearce, 2001),</p><p>equipment and appliances (Nicholls, 2001) and use</p><p>of technology (Langston and Ding, 2001; Roaf et al.,</p><p>2001; Smith, 2001) are technological attributes</p><p>considered in the form and performance of a building.</p><p>Eco-building design deals with green and clean</p><p>design. Environmental aspects are addressed in</p><p>establishing eco-efficient design whereas ecological</p><p>and environmental problems such as greenhouse</p><p>effects, ozone-layer depletion, acid rain, air, water</p><p>and land pollution, soil deteriorations, toxic wastes,</p><p>residues, loss of biodiversity and industrial accidents</p><p>are impacts that have been highlighted and</p><p>considered by researchers such as Shrivastava</p><p>(1995). Boussabaine and Kirkham (2004) classified</p><p>environmental impacts into two main groups:</p><p>atmospheric and resource-related impacts. Other</p><p>environmental issues addressed by Nicholls (2001),</p><p>Roaf et al. (2001) and Smith (2001) include energy</p><p>and resource characteristics, natural light, passive</p><p>heating, natural ventilation, passive cooling,</p><p>insulation and air tightness, water-saving devices,</p><p>GEO thermal benefits, sewage and landfill gas,</p><p>biomass, environmentally adapted technology,</p><p>low-energy materials, healthier and safer types of</p><p>energy and resources (renewable sources), more</p><p>efficient appliances and low-embodied energy</p><p>materials. Boussabaine and Kirkham (2004) stated</p><p>that socio-economic factors associated with design</p><p>include economical aspects of a building concerning</p><p>facility management costs, maintenance costs, level</p><p>of components replacement costs, pollution</p><p>rehabilitation and prevention costs, disposal costs,</p><p>risk costs and, more importantly, the trade-off</p><p>between capital and running costs. Design</p><p>performance (Gibson, 1982) based on customer</p><p>expectation, operation and maintenance should be</p><p>considered over the long term (Winch et al., 1998).</p><p>All the aforementioned concerns are essential for</p><p>providing end users with a high quality of life. This</p><p>brief review demonstrates that a large number of</p><p>attributes are associated directly or indirectly with</p><p>sustainable building design. These design</p><p>determinants can also interact with each other in a</p><p>dynamic and complex manner. To reduce</p><p>complexity, this work aims at extracting attributes</p><p>that have a high level of significance in ecological</p><p>building design. Several research methods exist to</p><p>rank, analyse and extract the most significant</p><p>attributes from a set of data. This article uses factor</p><p>analysis and data reduction techniques to extract</p><p>eco-design latent variables. The process, analysis,</p><p>findings and investigation are presented in this</p><p>article.</p><p>RESEARCH METHODOLOGY</p><p>Data utilized in this research are derived from a</p><p>questionnaire survey carried out among architecture</p><p>practices in the UK. To carry out the study, 450</p><p>practices out of 829 working on sustainable design</p><p>were randomly selected. The questionnaire includes</p><p>115 eco-indicators clustered into four groups, as</p><p>shown in Figure 1 (Vakili-Ardebili, 2005).</p><p>In view of the fact that it is difficult to manage 115</p><p>eco-indicators in a design process, this work</p><p>challenges to extract the most significant factors of</p><p>ecological building design by removing those factors</p><p>having less value in achieving sustainability. The</p><p>collected data were processed by scale ranking</p><p>using the mean value, standard deviation, coefficient</p><p>of variation and severity index of factors. Statistical</p><p>Package for the Social Science (SPSS) and Microsoft</p><p>Excel were used to carry out the ranking process.</p><p>Factor analysis and data reduction are the</p><p>techniques used to remove redundant data and to</p><p>obtain a manageable subset of the indicators that</p><p>present the major characteristics of eco-building</p><p>design indicators. Factor analysis is often used</p><p>in data reduction to identify a small number of</p><p>factors that explain most of the variance observed in</p><p>a much larger number of manifest variables (SPSS</p><p>Inc., 2004).</p><p>Factor analysis can be used either in hypothesis</p><p>testing or in searching for constructs within a group</p><p>of variables (Bartholomew and Knott, 1999). It is a</p><p>series of methods for finding clusters of related</p><p>variables and hence an ideal technique for reducing</p><p>a large number of factors into a more easily</p><p>understood framework (Norusis, 2000). It is used to</p><p>investigate if there is an underlying relationship</p><p>between the different indicators within the</p><p>questionnaire. In SPSS, the principal components</p><p>method is used to extract the latent components</p><p>112 A. VAKILI-ARDEBILI AND A. H. BOUSSABAINE</p><p>ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN MANAGEMENT</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>UQ</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 20:</p><p>57 0</p><p>1 Ju</p><p>ne 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>FIGURE 1 Eco-indicators questionnaire structure</p><p>Ecological Building Design Determinants 113</p><p>ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN MANAGEMENT</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>UQ</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 20:</p><p>57 0</p><p>1 Ju</p><p>ne 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>and variables. Components are a set of matrices that</p><p>present the correlations between different variables.</p><p>The process is begun by finding a linear</p><p>combination of variables (a component) that accounts</p><p>for as much variation in the original variables. It then</p><p>finds another component that accounts for as much</p><p>of the remaining variation as possible and it is</p><p>uncorrelated with the previous component. The</p><p>process continues in this way until there are as many</p><p>components as original variables. Usually, a few</p><p>components will account for most of the variation,</p><p>and these components can be used to replace the</p><p>original variables (SPSS Inc., 2004). Hence, the</p><p>outcome will be a few variables presenting the major</p><p>characteristics of eco-building design indicators.</p><p>After elimination of redundant data, the 32</p><p>remaining indicators are considered as representatives</p><p>of the whole initial set of eco-building design</p><p>indicators. They are categorized into six pivotal</p><p>clusters. These clusters are then subjected to further</p><p>statistical analysis.</p><p>The process of the analysis is shown in Figure 2.</p><p>The figure shows that through the use of data</p><p>reduction, the existing 115 components are reduced</p><p>to 27 components. The outcome of factor analysis is</p><p>the re-organization of the survey data into six new</p><p>homogeneous clusters that represent the whole</p><p>survey data set. The process, findings and</p><p>discussions of the data analysis are presented in the</p><p>following sections.</p><p>ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS</p><p>The following stages are needed in order to carry out</p><p>factor analysis.</p><p>The first stage of factor analysis is to determine</p><p>the strength of the relationship among the variables</p><p>(Shen and Liu, 2003). In the second stage, a matrix</p><p>of correlation coefficients is produced, and then</p><p>components carrying eigenvalues the value of a</p><p>variable in an equation (here the equation is</p><p>eco-building design) giving a solution that complies</p><p>with the conditions that exist at a systems</p><p>boundaries bigger than 1 are extracted from the</p><p>matrix of the correlation coefficient (the most</p><p>common extraction method is based on principal</p><p>component analysis).</p><p>In the third stage, a rotated component matrix is</p><p>generated in order to determine which of the</p><p>indicators have more effective influence in each</p><p>component.</p><p>Hence it can be argued that the process begins by</p><p>considering factors in the questionnaire (eco-building</p><p>design indicators in the questionnaire); then a series</p><p>of components is generated based on indicators in</p><p>the second stage, and their correlations are</p><p>investigated. In the third stage, a set of more</p><p>influential indicators is selected and considered as</p><p>representatives of the original data set as illustrated</p><p>in Figure 2. The results of factor analysis are</p><p>presented in Table 1. In Table 1, each component is</p><p>set according to series of correlations between</p><p>FIGURE 2 Process of data reduction and factor analysis</p><p>Source: Vakili-Ardebili (2005)</p><p>114 A. VAKILI-ARDEBILI AND A. H. BOUSSABAINE</p><p>ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN MANAGEMENT</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>UQ</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 20:</p><p>57 0</p><p>1 Ju</p><p>ne 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>TABLE 1 Total variance explained</p><p>Ecological Building Design Determinants 115</p><p>ARCHITECTURAL ENGINEERING AND DESIGN MANAGEMENT</p><p>Dow</p><p>nloa</p><p>ded </p><p>by [</p><p>UQ</p><p> Lib</p><p>rary</p><p>] at</p><p> 20:</p><p>57 0</p><p>1 Ju</p><p>ne 2</p><p>014 </p></li><li><p>different indicators. Thus, it determines how</p><p>correlated an indicator could be to other indicators.</p><p>The first column of three sections in Table 1 labelled</p><p>as initial eigenvalues relates to eigenvalues of the</p><p>correlation matrix and indicates which components</p><p>of the table remain in analysis. To carry out factor</p><p>analysis, only...</p></li></ul>

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