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DESIGN MANUAL FOR EXCAVATION SUPPORT USING DEEP MIXING TECHNOLOGY Cassandra RUTHERFORD, Giovanna BISCONTIN, and JeanLouis BRIAUD TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY (pictures from Schnabel Foundation Company, www.schnabel.com) MARCH 31, 2005 2 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This manual is the result of a research project sponsored by the National Deep Mixing (NDM) pooled fund program and the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). Mr. Ali Porbaha (CALTRANS) is the technical contact for NDM. Mr. Al DiMillio is the technical contact for FHWA. Mr. Victor Elias with SALUT is also thanked for his valuable advice. The authors thank their board of consultants namely Mr. George Tamaro of Mueser Rutledge Consulting Engineers, Mr. Demetrious Koutsoftas of Ove Arup and Partners, Dr. Tom O'Rourke of Cornell University and Mr. Dave Weatherby of Schnabel Foundations for their valuable contributions towards this project. The authors also wanted to thank the contributions of Dr. David Yang of Raito, Inc. 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................. 14 1.1 PURPOSE AND SCOPE ..................................................................................................... 14 1.2 APPLICATIONS AND LIMITATIONS ............................................................................. 14 1.3 TYPES OF EXCAVATION SUPPORT .............................................................................. 14 1.4 SELECTION OF DEEP MIXING METHOD ...................................................................... 16 1.5 ORGANIZATION OF MANUAL ....................................................................................... 18 CHAPTER 2 DEEP MIXING METHOD .............................................................................. 20 2.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 20 2.2 DEFINITIONS ..................................................................................................................... 20 2.3 HISTORICAL BACKGROUND ......................................................................................... 20 2.4 DEEP MIXING METHOD FUNDAMENTALS ................................................................. 21 2.5 ADVANTAGES OF DEEP MIXING METHOD FOR EXCAVATION SUPPORT .......... 24 2.6 LIMITATIONS OF DEEP MIXING METHOD FOR EXCAVATION SUPPORT ............ 25 CHAPTER 3 GEOMATERIAL DESIGN .............................................................................. 26 3.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 26 3.2 FACTORS AFFECTING STRENGTH OF SOIL CEMENT .............................................. 26 3.3 SELECTION OF MATERIAL PROPERTIES .................................................................... 27 3.4 MIX DESIGN ...................................................................................................................... 35 CHAPTER 4 CASE HISTORIES IN DEEP MIXING FOR EXCAVATION SUPPORT 37 4.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 37 4.2 CASE HISTORY 1 EBMUD STORAGE BASIN, OAKLAND, CA ............................... 37 4.3 CASE HISTORY 2 LAKE PARKWAY PROJECT, MILWAUKEE, WI ........................ 40 4.4 CASE HISTORY 3 CENTRAL ARTERY/TUNNEL PROJECT: BIRD ISLAND FLATS, BOSTON, MA ..................................................................................................................... 43 4.5 CASE HISTORY 4 HONOLULU EXCAVATION .......................................................... 45 4.6 CASE HISTORY 5 OAKLAND AIRPORT ROADWAY PROJECT, OAKLAND, CA . 48 4.7 CASE HISTORY 6 VERT WALL, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITY .................................. 51 CHAPTER 5 MODES OF FAILURE ..................................................................................... 54 5.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 54 5.2 INSTABILITY DUE TO SEEPAGE ................................................................................... 54 5.3 GLOBAL INSTABILITY .................................................................................................... 55 5.4 GEOTECHNCIAL FAILURE ............................................................................................. 57 5.5 STRUCTURAL FAILURE .................................................................................................. 58 CHAPTER 6 CANTILEVER AND SUPPORTED RETAINING WALL DESIGN ......... 59 6.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 59 6.2 SITE INVESTIGATION ..................................................................................................... 59 6.3 GENERAL DESIGN PROCEDURES ................................................................................. 60 6.4 SEEPAGE ANALYSIS ....................................................................................................... 63 6.5 EXTERNAL STABILITY ................................................................................................... 65 4 6.6 CANTILEVER WALL DESIGN ......................................................................................... 66 6.7 SINGLE SUPPORT/TIEBACK WALL DESIGN ............................................................. 70 6.8 MULTIPLE SUPPORTS/TIEBACKS WALL DESIGN .................................................... 76 6.9 COMPUTER AIDED ANALYSIS ..................................................................................... 78 6.10 VERTICAL CAPACITY OF WALL ................................................................................ 83 6.11 STRUCTURAL RESISTANCE OF RETAINING ELEMENTS ..................................... 84 6.12 MOVEMENTS .................................................................................................................. 86 6.13 OTHER CONSIDERATIONS .......................................................................................... 90 CHAPTER 7 DESIGN EXAMPLES ....................................................................................... 91 7.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................... 91 7.2 DESIGN EXAMPLE CANTILEVER WALL .................................................................. 91 7.3 DESIGN EXAMPLE SINGLE TIEBACK WALL AND MULTIPLE TIEBACK WALL ........................................................................................................................................... 118 7.4 PROJECT DESIGN EXAMPLE 1 BASED ON LAKE PARKWAY PROJECT, MILWAUKEE, WI ............................................................................................................ 137 7.5 PROJECT DESIGN EXAMPLE 2 BASED ON ISLAIS CREEK TRANSPORT/STORAGE SAN FRANCISCO, CA ......................................................... 143 CHAPTER 8 CONSTRUCTION .......................................................................................... 149 8.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 149 8.2 CONSTRUCTION TECHNIQUES ................................................................................... 149 8.3 SPOILS .............................................................................................................................. 153 8.4 PRECONSTRUCTION TESTING .................................................................................. 153 8.5 PERFORMANCE DURING CONSTRUCTION .............................................................. 153 8.6 SPECIFICATIONS ............................................................................................................ 153 CHAPTER 9 QUALITY ASSESSMENT AND PERFORMANCE MONITORING ..... 154 9.1 INTRODUCTION ............................................................................................................. 154 9.2 QUALITY ASSESSMENT METHODS ........................................................................... 154 9.3 CORE SAMPLING AND TESTING ................................................................................. 156 9.4 IN SITU TESTING ............................................................................................................ 156 9.5 MONITORING TECHNIQUES ........................................................................................ 157 REFERENCES .......................................................................................................................... 158 APPENDIX A CHARTS FOR DESIGN................................................................................ 163 APPENDIX B SPECIFICATIONS ....................................................................................... 172 APPENDIX C DM CONTRACTOR INFORMATION ....................................................... 205 5 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 1. Example of DM Excavation Support Construction Sequence ................................ 17 Figure 1 2. Marin Tower, Honolulu, HI Project Site ................................................................ 18 Figure 1 3. Marin Tower, Honolulu, HI Excavation Support System ...................................... 18 Figure 2 1. Deep Mixing for Excavation Support Timeline ..................................................... 21 Figure 2 2. Strength Comparisons (Typical values) ................................................................. 22 Figure 2 3. Typical Arrangement of Soil Cement Columns ..................................................... 22 Figure 2 4