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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe (1550–1715)
A king cannot suspend any laws without the consent of Parliament.
A king needs the approval of Parliament to raise taxes and maintain an army.
This bill guarantees the right of trial by jury for anyone accused of a crime.
A king is required to call frequent Parliamentary sessions for amending, strengthening, and preserving the laws.
These are the true, ancient, indubitable rights and liberties of the people of England.
Causes Effects
Map Overlay Transparency 14 L2
Europe After the Peace of Westphalia, 1648
Vistula R.
Pyrenees Mts.
Alps Mts.
M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a
A t l a n t i c O c e a n
No r t h S ea
Baltic Sea
Map Overlay Transparency 14
Enrichment Activity 14 L3
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By 1558, when Elizabeth Tudor ascended to the throne of England at the age of 25, she could read and write Greek, Latin, French, Italian, Spanish, German, and, of course, English. During the era that was named for her, she was celebrated in many poems and plays. Her own writing, how-
Enrichment Activity 14
ever, reveals the same intelligence and learning that distinguished much of six- teenth-century writing.
Below is the speech that Elizabeth deliv- ered to the British troops assembled at Tilbury in 1588 waiting for the landing of the Spanish Armada.
Addressing the Troops
My loving people,
We have been persuaded by some that are careful of our safety, to take heed how we commit our selves to armed multitudes, for fear of treachery; but I assure you I do not desire to live to distrust my faithful and loving people. Let tyrants fear, I have always so behaved myself that, under God, I have placed my chiefest strength and safeguard in the loyal hearts and good-will of my subjects; and therefore I come amongst you, as you see, at this time, not for my recreation and disport, but being resolved, in the midst and heat of the battle, to live or die amongst you all; to lay down for my God, and for my kingdom, and my people, my honour and my blood, even in the dust. I know I have the body but of a weak and feeble woman; but I have the heart and stomach of a king, and king of England too, and think foul scorn that Parma or Spain, or any prince of Europe, should dare to invade the borders of my realm; to which rather than any dis- honour shall grow by me, I myself will take up arms, I myself will be your general, judge, and rewarder of every one of your virtues in the field. I know already, for your forwardness you have deserved rewards and crowns; and We do assure you in the word of a prince, they shall be duly paid you. In the mean time, my lieutenant general shall be in my stead, than whom prince never commanded a more noble or worthy subject; not doubting but by your obedience to my gen- eral, by your concord in the camp, and your valour in the field, we shall shortly have a famous victory over those enemies of my God, of my kingdom, and of my people.
DIRECTIONS: Answer the questions below in the space provided.
1. According to Elizabeth, why is she at Tilbury with the troops? ________________________
2. What does Elizabeth’s presence at Tilbury with the soldiers tell you about her character?
3. How would you describe the tone or mood of this speech? ___________________________
4. What effect do you think this speech had on the soldiers? ____________________________
5. Imagine that Philip II of Spain was addressing his troops as they set off to invade England. How do you think his speech might be the same as Elizabeth’s? How might it be different?
Primary Source Reading 14 L2
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A Day at the Court of the Sun King
The luxurious and elaborate lifestyle of royal courts in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries seems almost unbelievable today. The French court, especially during the long reign of Louis XIV, set the style for the
rest of Europe. The colorful picture of court life in this selection was written by Louis de Rouvroy, duke of Saint-Simon, a noble whose Memoirs are consid- ered a masterpiece of French literature. Saint-Simon’s multivolume journals describe court life and personalities in the years 1694–1723, which include the final years of the reign of Louis XIV and the regency that followed.
GUIDED READING In this selection, read to learn what a “typical” day entailed in the life of King Louis XIV.
At eight o’clock the chief valet de chambre [personal servant] on duty, who alone had slept in the royal chamber, and who had dressed him- self, awoke the King [Louis XIV]. The chief physician, the chief surgeon, and the nurse (as long as she lived) entered at the same time. . . . At the quarter [8:15], the grand chamberlain was called . . . and those who had what was called the grandes entrées [greatest access]. The cham- berlain (or chief gentleman) drew back the curtains which had been closed again, and presented the holy water from the vase at the head of the bed. These gentlemen stayed but a moment, and that was the time to speak to the King, if anyone had anything to ask of him; in which case the rest stood aside. . . . Then all passed into the cabinet of the council. A very short religious service being over, the King called [and] they re-entered. The same officer gave him his dressing-gown; immediately after, other privileged courtiers entered, and then everybody, in time to find the King putting on his shoes and stockings, for he did almost every- thing himself, and with address [attention] and grace. Every other day we saw him shave him- self; and he had a little short wig in which he always appeared, even in bed, and on medicine days. . . .
As soon as he was dressed, he prayed to God, at the side of his bed, where all the clergy present knelt, the cardinals without cushions, all the laity [those outside the clergy] remaining standing; and the captain of the guards came to the balustrade during the prayer, after which the King passed into his cabinet. He found there, or was followed by all who had the entrée, a very
numerous company, for it included everybody in any office. He gave orders to each for the day; thus within a half a quarter of an hour it was known what he meant to do; and then all this crowd left directly. . . .
All the Court meantime waited for the King in the gallery. . . . During this pause the King gave audiences when he wished to accord any, spoke with whoever he might wish to speak secretly to, and gave secret interviews to foreign ministers. . . .
The King went to mass, where his musicians always sang an anthem. . . . The King amused himself a little upon returning from mass and asked almost immediately for the council. Then the morning was finished.
On Sunday, and often on Monday, there was a council of state; on Tuesday a finance council; on Wednesday council of state; on Saturday finance council. Rarely were two held in one day or any on Thursday or Friday. . . . Often on the days when there was no council the dinner hour was advanced more or less for the chase [hunt] or promenade. The ordinary hour was one o’clock; if the council still lasted, then the dinner waited and nothing was said to the King.
The dinner was always au petit couvert, that is, the King ate by himself in his chamber upon a square table in front of the middle window. It was more or less abundant, for he ordered in the morning whether it was to be “a little,” or “very little” service. But even at this last, there were always many dishes, and three courses without counting the fruit. . . .
Upon leaving the table the King immediately entered his cabinet [private room]. That was the
P R I M A R Y S O U R C E R E A D I N G 14
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King or Queen for a Day—Worksheet
Complete the following worksheet as you discuss the actions, policies, and personal objectives of the absolute monarchs. Use the information to come to an agreement on who should receive the King- or Queen-for-a-Day award.
Political achievements
Religious policy
State of the empire after the monarch’s reign
Choice for King- or Queen-for-a-Day award:
Historical Significance Activity 14 L2
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The English speaking theater achieved its greatest height in Elizabethan England. No playwright of this time was more important than William Shakespeare, and no theater more important than the “wooden O” referred to in the next to the last line below—the Globe—where Shakespeare pre- sented and acted in his works, and devel- oped his genius. Yet in 1598 the future of Shakespeare and his acting company, the Lord Chamberlain’s Men, were in jeopardy. They were then performing at The Theatre, and their lease was up. Evidently unim- pressed by the work of the man who would become the most important dramatist in world history, the landlord, Giles Allen, told the company he planned to tear the building down and “convert the wood and timber thereof to some better use.”
Faced with homelessness, the company took action. Under the cover of darkness the members disassembled the theater themselves and shipped the pieces across
the River Thames to an area called Bankside, where two new theaters had just been built. The company’s new home would be built there. All were counting on Bankside becoming London’s next theatri- cal center, and they were correct.
In 1599 the Globe—made of wood and probably round, like the letter O—opened its doors to the public and much success. Its sign showed Hercules bearing the world on his shoulders. Apparently Shakespeare believed that not only the “vastly fields of France” and “the casques [helmets] that did affright the air at Agincourt,” but the whole world, could be crammed imaginatively into the wooden O of the theater.
Shakespeare died in 1616, but the English stage continued to enjoy its greatest period until 1642. In that year the Puritans closed London’s theaters. They thought theatrical entertainment would corrupt the citizens, and the royalty, whom the Puritans opposed, supported the acting troupes.
Historical Significance Activity 14
Saving the “Wooden O”
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. Elizabethan plays often referred to figures from Greek and Roman mythology. Who is Mars and why does he fit in the prologue about King Henry the Fifth (Harry)?
2. What event happened at Agincourt? 3. Why did the Puritans object to plays being performed?
O,for a Muse of fire, that would ascend
The brightest heaven of invention!
A kingdom for a stage, princes to act,
And monarchs to behold the swelling scene!
Then would the warlike Harry, like himself,
Assume the port of Mars . . .
But pardon, gentles all . . . Can this cockpit hold The vastly fields of France?
Or may we cram Within this wooden O the
very casques That did affright the air at
The Life of King Henry the Fifth
Cooperative Learning Activity 14 L1/ELL
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Cooperative Learning Activity 14
BACKGROUND The late sixteenth century through to the beginning of the eighteenth century was a time of great change in the nations of Europe. European monarchs sought to con- solidate and expand their authority, often in the context of religious wars and dis- putes wrapped around political power agendas. A number of absolute monarchs and rulers played key roles in the European theater. In this activity, your group will choose one historical figure from the era of state building in Europe, research the subject’s role in the great changes that took place in Europe, and present their find- ings as a multimedia presentation to the class.
GROUP DIRECTIONS 1. Your group should discuss, then select, one of the following figures to research.
Elizabeth I Peter the Great William and Mary Oliver Cromwell Louis XIV Frederick William the Great Charles II James II Philip II Henry of Navarre
2. As a group, decide on the aspects of the subject to be researched and presented, including details from his or her personal life and the impact that the person had on changes in Europe as a whole. Assign specific areas of research to indi- vidual group members.
3. Complete your research assignment and include ideas for visuals and props that can be included in the multimedia presentation about your subject.
4. Present your multimedia presentation to the class and have the class complete the “listener’s guide.”
ORGANIZING THE GROUP 1. Decision Making/Group Work Decide on a subject from the list provided or
suggest another subject to your teacher for approval. Brainstorm as a group the general criteria or areas that will be used to organize the research on the sub- ject’s life and historical significance. Record the results. Assign specific topics or criteria to individual team members to research. Team members should be aware of all organizing criteria determined by the team, not just their own, so they can point teammates to sources of information for their own, different research assignments.
2. Individual Work Start with your textbook, but draw upon at least three sources of information to research your subject under the criteria you were assigned. Be sure to include personal information you can find about the subject and identify sources of maps, paintings, documents, information about personal effects, and other information that can be used in visuals. Share any information you find that
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Vocabulary PuzzleMaker CD-ROM Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM Audio Program World History Primary Source Document Library CD-ROM
MindJogger Videoquiz Presentation Plus! CD-ROM TeacherWorks CD-ROM Interactive Student Edition CD-ROM The World History Video Program
MULTIMEDIAMULTIMEDIA The following Spanish language materials are available:
• Spanish Guided Reading Activities • Spanish Reteaching Activities • Spanish Quizzes and Tests • Spanish Vocabulary Activities • Spanish Summaries • Spanish Reading Essentials and Study Guide
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Then As the leaders of the Holy Roman Empire, the Hapsburgs of Austria tried to unify the countries under their rule by converting their populations to Catholicism. In Bohemia (present-day Czechoslovakia), Catholics and Protestants had once coexisted in peace. However, when a Hapsburg monarch closed down the Protestant churches there, civil war broke out. This conflict ignited the Thirty Years’ War, which raged from 1618 to 1648.
The Bohemians’ reaction to an attack on their religion demonstrated the strength of people’s attachment to their culture. However, the Hapsburgs ignored this message. After putting down the Bohemian revolt, the Hapsburgs attempted to force Catholicism on other German states. By the end of the Thirty Years’ War, the Hapsburg king, Ferdinand III, had abandoned this effort.
In the meantime, Ferdinand created a strong central government within the countries still under his control. He then wrested Hungary and Transylvania from the Ottoman Empire.
Under the Turks, the Hungarians had been free to practice Protestantism and otherwise express their own culture. This tolerance enabled Hungarians to develop a strong sense of national identity, which would help them later on as they resisted the rule of Austria. Although unable to completely break away from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the Hungarians did manage to thwart the Hapsburgs’ attempts to establish a totally cen- tralized empire. Over time, strong feelings of nationalism would develop within other coun- tries of the Empire, and these countries, too, began to challenge the authority of Austria.
Now Some governments still ignore peoples’ right to choose their own way of life. The “empire” of the former Soviet Union included countries in Eastern Europe, in which the Soviets had set up puppet governments. Like the countries in the Austro-Hungarian Empire, Eastern Europe under the Soviets also had a variety of ethnic groups living within the region. Hoping to maintain a strong central- ized rule, the Soviets did not allow the different groups of people in Eastern Europe to express their cultures: Traditional religions, economies, family structures, art, and litera- ture were all banned.
Hungary and Czechoslovakia were among several Soviet-ruled countries that had been part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The national- ism that developed during Austrian rule intensified under Soviet control. Repeatedly, Hungary and Czechoslovakia tried to free them- selves from the Soviets. Finally they succeeded as the Soviet Union began to crumble.
Communist China has also tried to revise the cultures of the peoples living under its domain. Tibet is a notable example. Buddhist leaders, called lamas, once ran the Tibetan gov- ernment. Consequently, religion formed the core of Tibetan culture.
When China first took over Tibet, Chinese leaders promised the Tibetans that their reli- gious freedom would be respected. However, in 1956 that promise was broken: Many Buddhist monasteries were closed and the Dalai Lama was forced to seek refuge in India.
Buddhism forbids the use of violence. Therefore, the Dalai Lama has tried to free his country of Chinese tyranny through peaceful means—so far without much success.
Linking Past and Present Activity 14
Attempts to Maintain Centralized Power: Past and Present
Critical Thinking
Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper. 1. Making comparisons: How were the
Hapsburgs and the Soviets similar in the way they ruled conquered countries? How were they different?
2. Making inferences: Why might leaders feel that controlling a group’s culture would help them govern that group?
3. Synthesizing information: Do you think that peaceful resistance, such as strikes and boycotts, are worthwhile methods of
Time Line Activity 14 L2
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Time Line Activity 14
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe DIRECTIONS: The monarchs who ruled Spain, England, France, the German states, and Russia from 1500 to 1750 were intent on expanding their territory and power. Their efforts at national expansion set the stage for Europe’s future territorial conflicts. The time line below shows some of the key events in their power struggles. Read the time line, then answer the questions that follow.
1. Whom did Queen Elizabeth I put to death in 1587?
2. When did the Thirty Years’ War begin?
3. What common factor links the event that occurred in 1566 with the event in 1625?
4. Which country became independent in the mid-seventeenth century?
5. Based on the entire time line, how would you characterize Europe in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries?
1500 1600 1700 1800
1668 Spain recognizes Portugal’s independence.
1748 European powers sign the Treaty of Alx-la-Chapelle.
1721 Russia defeats Sweden and wins control of the eastern end of the Baltic region.
1700 Charles II dies; Europe is plunged into the War of the Spanish Succession.
1566 Dutch Protestants rebel against Philip II’s efforts to impose Catholicism on the Netherlands.
1587 Elizabeth I orders the execu- tion of Mary Stuart, her cousin.
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada.
1598 Russian Time of Troubles begins.
1625 Huguenots revolt against Louis XIII.
1618 Thirty Years War begins.
1642 English civil war begins.
1685 The Edict of Nantes is repealed.
Reteaching Activity 14 L1
Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
The monarchs who ruled England, France, Spain, the German states, and Russia from 1500 to 1750 battled to expand their domain and their power. Their struggles laid the foundation for the ensuing territorial strife in Europe.
DIRECTIONS: Complete the following “KWL” chart to review the information in Chapter 19. A few sample questions have been filled in for you.
Reteaching Activity 14‘
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What I Already Know What I Want to Know What I Learned
Section 1: Spain Why did Philip II and other Spanish monarchs have difficulty ruling the Spanish Empire?
Section 2: England How did the Tudor monarchs influence English and European affairs?
Section 3: France
Section 5: Russia
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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe: 1550–1715 DIRECTIONS: Write one of the following terms on each numbered line below to complete the paragraphs.
Vocabulary Activity 14f
• witchcraft
In Spain the rule of Philip II was an example of (1) as he held
virtually unlimited power over his subjects. About 15,000 Spanish soldiers died as a result
of the disastrous defeat of the (2) Philip had sent to invade England.
Another result of the defeat was (3) , which sent prices soaring.
During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries an intense hysteria over the belief in
(4) , or magic, affected the lives of many Europeans. The religious
zeal that led to the Inquisition and the hunt for (5) was extended to
concern about witchcraft.
Following the death of England’s Queen Elizabeth I, James I ascended to the throne
with his belief in (6) , the conviction that a ruler derives complete
authority to govern directly from God and is responsible to God alone.
In 1642 England slipped into a civil war between the supporters of the king and the par-
liamentary forces. Following their victory, Parliament abolished the monarchy and the House
of Lords and declared England a republic, or (7) .
In the sixteenth century, Russia’s Ivan IV became the first ruler to take the title of
(8) , the Russian word for caesar. Ivan IV took steps against the
(9) to reduce their potential threat to his throne.
The artistic Renaissance came to an end when a new movement, called
(10) , emerged in Italy and distorted elements such as scale and
perspective. This movement was eventually replaced by (11) , known
for its use of dramatic effects to arouse the emotions.
John Locke, an English political thinker, argued against absolutism. Locke believed that
humans had certain (12) , including life, liberty, and property.
Chapter 14 Test Form A L2
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nc .
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
Column A
2. recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France
3. Thirty Years’ War
5. the invasion of England by William of Orange
6. granted Puritans, but not Catholics, the right of free public worship
7. Louis XIII’s chief minister
8. sought to increase France’s wealth and power by following the ideas of mercantilism
9. his work reflected the high point of Mannerism
10. integrated Western customs and ways of doing things into Russia
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the sentence. (4 points each)
11. The house of ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre. A. Valois C. Bourbon B. Nantes D. Annecy
12. Phillip II of Spain was known as the A. “Huguenot King.” C. “King of the World.” B. “Most Catholic King.” D. “Papal King.”
13. James I of England believed in the divine right of kings, which is A. the belief that a king was granted the wisdom of God upon ascending to the
throne, and therefore was faultless. B. the concept that kings were equal to God, and therefore did not have to live by
the laws of the Church. C. the theory that kings alone could know the mind of God, and therefore could
determine the future through divination. D. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God.
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Column B
B. El Greco
C. Charles I
D. Cardinal Richelieu
Performance Assessment Activity 14 L1/ELL
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Crisis and Absolutism in Europe BACKGROUND
The term multimedia means “many media.” Multimedia presentations are exciting and effective because they stimulate many different senses—especially sight and hearing—at the same time. Multimedia presentations include some or all of the fol- lowing elements:
TASK Create a multimedia show to capture the excitement of the great social upheavals
that took place in Europe from 1500 to 1700. Working with a small group of classmates, use a variety of different media to describe what happened in Spain, England, France, the German states, and Russia. Your show should be no more than 10 minutes long.
AUDIENCE Your audience is your classmates and teacher.
PURPOSE The purpose of your multimedia show is to give your audience an accurate,
detailed description of royal power and conflict (political, social, and economic) in Europe during the sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries.
PROCEDURES 1. Summarize what you know about Spain, England, France, the German states, and
Russia from 1500 to 1700.
2. Research any additional information you need.
3. Plan and outline what you will include in your presentation. Select the different media you will use to present each aspect of your show.
4. Prepare a complete script, including each speaker’s dialogue and cues for each media display. Prepare any illustrations and make any recording to be included in your show. Prepare a time management plan and allocate tasks to each group member.
5. Construct the multimedia show. Check and double-check any machinery (such as video players, CD players, and slide projectors) to make sure that they are work- ing correctly.

• computer text • movies • posters
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The Hapsburg Empire The Hapsburgs reached their greatest power before the end of the 1500s: Charles V annexed Milan in 1535, Philip II conquered Portugal in 1580, and Spanish holdings in the Americas were expanding. However the Hapsburg power structure would collapse over the next decades.
DIRECTIONS: The map below shows the Hapsburg holdings in the mid-1500s. Use the map to complete the activities that follow. Write your answers on a separate sheet of paper.
Mapping History Activity 14
1. Based on the map, in what ways was the Hapsburg Empire powerful in the mid-1500s?
2. Did Philip II make a strategic error in locating the capital of the Spanish Hapsburg possessions in Madrid? Explain your answer.
3. Locate each of the lands held by the Spanish Hapsburgs. Based on the arrange- ment of countries, what location might have made a better capital than Madrid? Why?
4. The Spanish Armada suffered a disastrous defeat at the hands of the English.
Baltic Sea
North Sea
World Art and Music Activity 14 L2
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Rembrandt van Rijn (1606–1669) was born in Leyden, the son of a miller. He received a
classical education at the Latin School and spent one year at the university. He left school at the age of 15 to study art under a local artist. Recognition and fame came early, and Rembrandt was soon sought after to produce portraits and other paintings for collectors. He was also an excellent teacher; in fact, hundreds of works thought to have been painted by Rembrandt are now known to be the work of his students.
One of Rembrandt’s specialties was large oil paintings—some of biblical stories, others on his- torical subjects. These include The Blinding of Samson, The Return of the Prodigal Son, The Sacrifice of Abraham, Aristotle Contemplating the Bust of Homer, and The Night Watch. Much of his genius was in his use of chiaroscuro, or the play between light and dark. Sometimes in his paintings light pours in from outside, illuminating the important figures. More often the figures themselves seem to radiate their own light, as in the self-portrait shown here. Also, each face painted by Rembrandt is different—Samson looks wretched; the father forgiving his son is full of tenderness and compassion; the soldiers on night watch are alert. There is also balance and an attention to detail. The emotions portrayed
draw the viewer into an intimate relationship with the art. It is not necessary to know the story behind the painting to feel its emotions and share the experience. Rembrandt’s appeal is said to lie in his “profound humanity”—the compas- sion he has for all his subjects.
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In the 1600s, the Netherlands was a newly independent country. Consequently, Dutch artists were not supported by a system of commissions from church and state, as were the artists in older, Catholic countries. Instead, artists were dependent on private collectors. There were many wealthy collec- tors, which encouraged an explosion of artistic talent. The master of all the Dutch artists was Rembrandt, who produced in his lifetime more than 600 paintings, 300 etchings, and 2,000 drawings. Yet he died alone, penniless, and largely unappreciated.
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below about this Dutch painter, then answer the questions that follow.
History and Geography Activity 14 L2
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Since 1704, England and Spain have been quarreling over Gibraltar, a 2.25 square mile rocky outcropping in the Straits of Gibraltar linked to Spain by a narrow isthmus. Why do the two powers contest control of “the Rock”?
England plucked Gibraltar from Spain during the War of the Spanish Succession, which began when Louis XIV accepted the Spanish crown on behalf of his grandson, Philip of Anjou. In the spring of 1704, Britain and the Netherlands dispatched fleets to the Mediterranean to assist Charles of Austria in his claim to the crown. Unable to attain their original objective and not wishing to return empty-handed, the fleet’s commanders attacked Gibraltar on July 23 and took possession of its gates the next
day. To the naval commanders of Britain, control of the point at the southern tip of Spain where the Atlantic joins the Mediterranean proved irresistible.
Some 200 years later during World War II, Britain’s judgment of Gibraltar’s strategic importance proved correct. In November of 1942, General Eisenhower set up a command center in Gibraltar from which he launched the invasion of North Africa known as Operation Torch. Troop convoys assembled in Gibraltar’s harbor. A cave within the rocks served as the point from which Eisenhower communicated with Washington, London, and the field commanders landing in Africa. From this strategic point, the Allies launched the campaign that eventually allowed them to regain Europe.
Britain’s Toehold in Europe
0°0° 10°E
World War II Allied Troop Movements
Launched from Gibraltar, landings near Casablanca, Oran, and Algiers started the campaign that eventu- ally allowed Allied forces to occupy Europe during World War II.
People in World History Activity 14 L2
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Remember, remember the fifth of November, Gunpowder treason and plot; I see no reason why Gunpowder Treason Should ever be forgot.
chant sung by children on Guy Fawkes Day
Each November 5 in the British Commonwealth, children repeat this Gunpowder Treason chant. It’s Guy Fawkes Day! On this day in 1605, a man named Guy Fawkes nearly blew up King James I and his government.
Robert Catesby was one of the conspira- tors’ leaders. A Roman Catholic extremist, he wanted to avenge the anti-Catholic laws of England. He enlisted at least 11 other people to help him carry out his plans. The most famous of these was Guy Fawkes, a soldier who had been serving in Flanders. The group rented a house next to Parliament and tunneled into a cellar beneath the House of Lords. There, Fawkes and the other conspir- ators stacked 36 barrels of gunpowder, cov- ered with iron bars and firewood. All that remained was to set the gunpowder off. The date selected for the explosion was November 5, when King James himself was scheduled to appear for the opening of Parliament. The conspirators hoped that the massive explosion would kill James and the members of Parliament, and in turn set off a Catholic uprising throughout Britain.
Although the plan required secrecy, word got out. Since the conspirators needed more
money to finance the planned uprising, they invited several wealthy men to join them. One of these men, Sir Francis Tresham, revealed the plot to his brother-in- law Lord Monteagle, through a letter warn- ing him not to attend Parliament. Monteagle had the cellar searched. Fawkes was captured, and what came to be known as the Gunpowder Plot was ended. Ironically, the Gunpowder Plot, which was conceived to help the plight of persecuted Roman Catholics, actually caused Roman Catholic persecution to be more vigorous and bitter in England.
The conspirators were tried and convict- ed. On January 31, 1606, Fawkes and 7 of the other conspirators were beheaded. Of the 11 conspirators, Guy Fawkes—because he intended to light the fuse—is the most remembered. In 1606, a year after the gunpowder was discovered, Parliament enacted a law establishing November 5 as a day of public thanksgiving. To this day, children make effigies of Guy Fawkes. The “Guys” are then burned in bonfires, and fireworks fill the skies.
Guy Fawkes (1570–1606)
Directions: Answer the following questions on a separate sheet of paper.
1. What role did Guy Fawkes play in the Gunpowder Plot?
2. What was the purpose of the plot, and what were its results?
3. Critical Thinking Drawing Conclusions. Why did the Parliament choose November 5 to be a day of thanksgiving?
Guy Fawkes, kneeling, being interrogated by James I
Critical Thinking Skills Activity 14 L2
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Critical Thinking Skills Activity 14 Drawing Conclusions
1. From the information above, what can you conclude about Sir Francis Drake’s perso-
nality? State and support at least two conclusions.
2. What conclusion can you draw about why Sir Francis Drake changed the name of the
flagship from the Pelican to the Golden Hind? Explain your answer.
3. At sea, captains took the law into their own hands. Explain why this conclusion is or is
not supported by the information above.
When you draw conclusions, you make decisions about information presented. A conclusion is a logical generalization you make by putting together the details you read about with what you already know
about the topic. For example, you might read about a king who, without consulting his advisers, invades a neighboring country. From this information, you might conclude that the king is impulsive or aggressive.
DIRECTIONS: Read the passage below. Then answer the questions that follow to draw conclusions.
From 1577 to 1580, the great English explorer Sir Francis Drake sailed around the world in a ship called the Golden Hind. However, the ship
started its voyage with a different name—the Pelican. Sir Francis Drake suddenly renamed the ship right after one of his sailors, Thomas Doughty, sparked a mutiny. Drake ruthlessly suppressed the mutiny by beheading Doughty, but this action created a political crisis. Doughty had been the secretary to Sir Christopher Hatton, a major investor in the voyage and one of Queen Elizabeth’s favorites. The Hatton family coat of arms (a family crest or shield) was decorated with a golden female deer, called a hind. A few days after Doughty’s execution, Drake renamed the Pelican the Golden Hind. Under that name, the ship achieved great fame.
Standardized Test Practice Workbook Activity 14 L2
C opyright ©
-H ill C
om panies, Inc.
Standardized Test Practice
Name __________________________________ Date ____________________ Class ____________
Writing Objective 1: The student will respond appropriately in a written composition to the purpose/audience specified in a given topic.
A writer uses persuasion to express his or her opinion and to make readers agree with it, change their own opinion, and sometimes take action. Like other types of writing, persuasive writing consists of a topic, a main idea about the topic, and supporting details. However, your main purpose in persuasive writing is to influence other people. Therefore, you need to pay special attention to your audience, presenting your supporting ideas in a way that will persuade your audience to accept your opinion.
Practicing the Skill Read the selection below and complete the activity that follows.
Learning to Write Persuasively Use the following guidelines to help you write persuasively.
• Direct your argument to a particular audience.
• Present your viewpoint in a main idea statement.
• Support your main idea statement with facts and relevant opinion.
• Use supporting evidence that appeals to both reason and emotion.
• Anticipate and respond to possible opposing viewpoints.
• End by summarizing your ideas and, if appropriate, give a clear call to action.
ACTIVITY 14 Persuasive Writing About an Issue
Louis XIV is recognized as the most powerful king who
ever ruled France. His 72-year reign set the style for European monarchies during the 1600s and 1700s.
Although Louis relied on a bureaucracy, he was the source of all political authority in France. Jacques Bossuet, the leading church official of France during the 1600s, supported Louis’s feelings about absolute monarchy. Bossuet wrote:
“What grandeur that a single man should embody so much!… Behold this holy power, paternal and absolute, contained in a single head: you see the image of God in the king, and you have the idea of royal majesty.”
According to Bousset, subjects had no right to revolt. Kings need account to no one except God, but they should act with humility and restraint because “God’s judgment is heaviest for those who command.”
King Louis XIV
nc .
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the blanks. (4 points each)
Column A
2. the “Most Catholic King”
3. the idea that kings receive their power from God and are responsible only to God
4. Protestants in England inspired by Calvinist ideas
5. soldiers in the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell
6. laid the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England
7. system of government in which a ruler holds total power
8. fostered the myth of himself as the Sun King
9. marked the end of the artistic Renaissance
10. his novel Don Quixote has been hailed as one of the greatest literary works of all time
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice Choose the item that best completes each sentence or answers each question. Write the letter of the item in the blank to the left of the sentence. (4 points each)
11. Although only 7 percent of the total French population were _____ , 40 to 50 percent of the nobility became part of that religion. A. Catholics C. Jews B. Huguenots D. Jesuits
12. The Edict of Nantes recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, but A. also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges,
such as holding public office. B. was intended to bring about an end to the battles between the Catholics and the
Huguenots, but actually only served to inflame tensions. C. declared all Huguenots to be enemies of the state, starting the French Wars
of Religion. D. was largely ignored by the Huguenots, and served only to appease the pope.
13. The Thirty Years’ War involved all the major European powers except which nation? A. France C. England B. Spain D. Germany
Name Date Class
Column B
A. Roundheads
B. Bourbon
E. absolutism
F. Puritans
SECTION 1 Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion 1. Discuss the situation in many
European nations in which Protestants and Catholics fought for political and religious control.
2. Summarize how, during the six- teenth and seventeenth centuries, many European rulers extended their power and their borders.
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–1 Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1 Guided Reading Activity 14–1* Section Quiz 14–1* Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1 Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM* Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
SECTION 3 Response to Crisis: Absolutism 1. Identify and describe Louis XIV, an
absolute monarch whose extrava- gant lifestyle and military campaigns weakened France.
2. Discuss how Prussia, Austria, and Russia emerged as great European powers in the seventeenth and eigh- teenth centuries.
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–3 Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–3 Guided Reading Activity 14–3* Section Quiz 14–3* Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–3*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–3 Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM* Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
SECTION 4 The World of European Culture 1. Describe the artistic movements of
Mannerism and the baroque, which began in Italy and reflected the spiri- tual perceptions of the time.
2. Identify Shakespeare and Lope de Vega, prolific writers of dramas and comedies that reflected the human condition.
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–4 Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–4 Guided Reading Activity 14–4* Section Quiz 14–4* Reteaching Activity 14* Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–4*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–4 Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM* Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
SECTION 2 Social Crises, War, and Revolution 1. Explain how the Thirty Years’ War
ended the unity of the Holy Roman Empire.
2. Relate how democratic ideals were strengthened as a result of the English and Glorious Revolutions.
Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–2 Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2 Guided Reading Activity 14–2* Section Quiz 14–2* Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–2*
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2 Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM* Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Assign the Chapter 14 Reading Essentials and Study Guide.
Chapter 14 Resources
The following articles relate to this chapter:
• “The Tale of the San Diego,” by Frank Goddio, July 1994. • “The Living Tower of London,” by William R. Newcott,
October 1993. • “St. Petersburg: Capital of the Tsars,” by Steve Raymer,
December 1993. • “Inside the Kremlin,” by Jon Thompson, January 1990. • “Shakespeare Lives at the Folger,” by Merle Severy,
February 1987. • “Legacy from the Deep: Henry VIII’s Lost Warship,” by
Margaret Rule, May 1983.
Access National Geographic’s new dynamic MapMachine Web site and other geography resources at:
Teaching strategies have been coded.
L1 BASIC activities for all students L2 AVERAGE activities for average to above-average
students L3 CHALLENGING activities for above-average students
Activities that are suited to use within the block scheduling framework are identified by:
Candice Frumson Ladue Horton Watkins High School St. Louis, Missouri
What Kind of King am I? Have students analyze and discuss primary source
documents to gain an understanding of Louis XIV and absolutism. Choose from the writings of Louis or members of his court and distribute copies to stu- dents. Read the document aloud and provide time for students to take their own notes as to the main points and their interpretation. Then have students work in pairs to discuss the main points and take notes. Follow this activity with a class discussion. Ask if Louis’s problems have a modern equivalent (use Hitler, the United States, the Soviet Union, and so on as examples). Ask students to write a “talk back” to Louis XIV telling him what they think of his ideas.
From the Classroom of…
Use our Web site for additional resources. All essential content is covered in the Student Edition.
You and your students can visit , the Web site companion to Glencoe World History. This innovative integration of electronic and print media offers your students a wealth of opportunities. The student text directs students to the Web site for the following options:
• Chapter Overviews • Self-Check Quizzes
• Student Web Activities • Textbook Updates
Answers to the Student Web Activities are provided for you in the Web Activity Lesson Plans. Additional Web resources and Interactive Tutor Puzzles are also available.
MEETING SPECIAL NEEDSMEETING SPECIAL NEEDS In addition to the Differentiated Instruction strategies found in each section, the following resources are also suitable for your special needs students:
• ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM allows teachers to tailor tests by reducing answer choices.
• The Audio Program includes the entire narrative of the student edition so that less-proficient readers can listen to the words as they read them.
• The Reading Essentials and Study Guide provides the same content as the student edition but is written two grade levels below the textbook.
• Guided Reading Activities give less-proficient readers point-by-point instructions to increase comprehension as they read each textbook section.
• Enrichment Activities include a stimulating collection of readings and activities for gifted and talented students.
0426A-0426D C14 TE-Nat/FL©05 3/11/04 9:14 AM Page 429
Key Events As you read this chapter, look for these key events in the history of Europe during the
sixteenth, seventeenth, and early eighteenth centuries. • The French religious wars of the sixteenth century pitted Protestant Calvinists
against Catholics. • From 1560 to 1650, wars, including the devastating Thirty Years’ War, and economic
and social crises plagued Europe. • European monarchs sought economic and political stability through absolutism and
the divine right of kings. • Concern with order and power was reflected in the writings of Thomas Hobbes and
John Locke.
The Impact Today The events that occurred during this time period still impact our lives today.
• The ideas of John Locke are imbedded in the Constitution of the United States. • The works of William Shakespeare continue to be read and dramatized all over
the world.
World History Video The Chapter 14 video,“Louis XIV: The Sun King,” chronicles the practice of absolutism in France during the 1600s.
1500 1550
1566 Violence erupts between Calvinists and Catholics in the Netherlands
St. Francis, as painted by Mannerist El Greco
Elizabeth I
Introducing CHAPTER 14
Introducing CHAPTER 14
Refer to Activity 14 in the Performance Assessment and Rubrics booklet.
Performance Assessment
The World History Video Program To learn more about early seventeenth-century France, students can view the Chapter 14 video, “Louis XIV: The Sun King,” from The World History Video Program.
MindJogger Videoquiz Use the MindJogger Videoquiz to preview Chapter 14 content.
Available in VHS.
K-W-L Charts What do you Know, what do you Want to know, what have you Learned? This strategy helps students utilize their knowledge and generates interest. Have the students create a three-box chart on Monarchy. Label the top two boxes “What do you Know about Monarchies?” and “What do you Want to know about Monarchies?” Label the third box “What have you Learned about Monar- chies?” Ask students to fill in the first two boxes, and then discuss what they wrote with a partner and the class. Finally, ask them to add information to the “Learned” box as they study the chapter. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities in the TCR.
0426-453 CO14 TE-860703 3/11/04 9:23 AM Page 426
Dinah Zike’s Foldables are three- dimensional, interactive graphic organizers that help students practice basic writing skills, review key vocabulary terms, and identify main ideas. Have students complete the foldable activity in the Dinah Zike’s Reading and Study Skills Foldables booklet.
Versailles was the center of court life during the reign of Louis XIV.
Chapter Overview Visit the Glencoe World History Web site at
and click on Chapter 14–Chapter Overview to preview chapter information.
1618 Thirty Years’ War begins in Germany
1648 Peace of Westphalia ends Thirty Years’ War
1689 Toleration Act of 1689 is passed in English Parliament
1690 John Locke develops theory of government
1701 Frederick I becomes king of Prussia
Gustavus Adolphus, the king of Sweden, on the battlefield
John Locke
Introducing CHAPTER 14
Introducing CHAPTER 14
The Palace of Versailles is one of the most famous structures of Western architecture. It was origi- nally a hunting lodge but was expanded by Louis XIV beginning in 1661 to reflect his power and grandeur. On several occasions during Louis’s reign, the palace was the scene of elaborate and enormously expensive festivals that lasted for as long as a week. From 1682 to 1789, the Palace of Versailles was the official residence of the kings of France. In 1919, the treaty that ended World War I was signed in the palace’s famous Hall of Mirrors. Today the Palace of Versailles is a national museum that draws about 3 million visitors a year. Restoration work on its interiors and exteriors, begun in the early 1900s, is still continuing.
Chapter Objectives After studying this chapter, stu- dents should be able to: 1. describe the causes of the
French Wars of Religion and how they were resolved;
2. explain militant Catholicism and its effects on Europe;
3. list the causes and results of the Thirty Years’ War;
4. discuss the significance of the English and Glorious Revolutions;
5. explain the absolutism of Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the Great;
6. distinguish an absolute from a constitutional monarchy;
7. explain significant movments in art, literature, and philosophy in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries.
Time Line Activity
Have students list events on the time line that reflect religious struggles. (violence between Calvinists and Catholics in the Netherlands, French Wars of Religion, Toleration Act) L1
Chapter Overview Introduce students to chapter content and key terms by having them access Chapter Overview 14 at
0426-453 CO14 TE-860703 3/11/04 9:25 AM Page 427
ouis XIV has been regarded by some as the perfect embodiment of an absolute monarch. Duc de Saint-Simon,
who had firsthand experience of French court life, said in his memoirs that Louis was “the very figure of a hero, so imbued with a natural majesty that it appeared even in his most insignificant gestures and movements.”
The king’s natural grace gave him a special charm: “He was as dignified and majestic in his dressing gown as when dressed in robes of state, or on horseback at the head of his troops.” He excelled at exercise and was never affected by the weather: “Drenched with rain or snow, pierced with cold, bathed in sweat or covered with dust, he was always the same.”
He spoke well and learned quickly. He was naturally kind, and “he loved truth, justice, order, and reason.” His life was orderly: “Nothing could be regulated with greater exactitude than were his days and hours.” His self-control was evident: “He did not lose control of himself ten times in his whole life, and then only with inferior persons.”
Even absolute monarchs had imperfections, however, and Saint-Simon had the courage to point them out: “Louis XIV’s vanity was without limit or restraint.” This trait led to his “dis- taste for all merit, intelligence, education, and most of all, for all independence of character and sentiment in others.” It led as well as “to mistakes of judgment in matters of importance.”
L The Majesty of Louis XIV
Louis XIV with his army
Louis XIV holding court
Why It Matters The religious upheavals of the six- teenth century left Europeans sorely divided. Wars, revolutions, and eco- nomic and social crises haunted Europe, making the 90 years from 1560 to 1650 an age of crisis in European life. One response to these crises was a search for order. Many states satisfied this search by extending monarchical power. Other states, such as England, created sys- tems where monarchs were limited by the power of a parliament.
History and You As you read through this chapter, you will learn about a number of monarchs. Cre- ate either a paper or electronic chart listing the following information: name of the ruler; country; religion; challenges; accomplishments. Using outside sources, add another category to your chart to reflect what you learn about the personal life of each king.
Introducing A Story That Matters Depending upon the ability level of your students, select from the following questions to rein- force the reading of A Story That Matters. • What evidence is there in the
story that suggests Louis XIV enjoyed being in control? (He always appeared the same and did not lose control of himself.)
• What was the one characteris- tic about himself that Louis XIV could not seem to con- trol? (his vanity)
• Why do you think a monarch like Louis XIV, with limitless, unrestrained vanity, might make “mistakes of judg- ment”? (He was too concerned with his own appearance and ego and did not always see the big- ger picture.) L1 L2
About the Art Louis XIV was a great patron of the arts and quickly increased the number of paintings in his galleries. He demanded that artists meet classical standards that reflected elegance, self- restraint, and polish. French art became the expression of the nation and the king, but not of the people. French styles in both art and architecture spread to ruling classes all over Europe.
HISTORY AND YOU Maintaining order and increasing political and economic stability has been the primary goal of most governments. What is the best way to do this—by extending governmental controls and pow- ers or by guaranteeing individual rights and limiting government? Have students analyze this ques- tion by researching current examples of at least two governments that have taken different approaches to solving this issue. Students should familiarize themselves with John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, who are discussed in Section 4 of this chapter, before conducting their research. Have students write a brief report stating their opinion about this issue, as supported by the results of their research. L2
1 FCAT LA.A.2.2.7
1 FOCUS Section Overview This section explores the strug- gles between Catholics and Protestants during this period.
1562 French Wars of Religion begin
1571 Spain defeats Turks in Battle of Lepanto
1588 England defeats the Spanish Armada
Guide to Reading
Preview of Events 1560 1570 1580 1590 1600
In August of 1572, during the French Wars of Religion, the Catholic party decided to kill Protestant leaders gathered in Paris. One Protestant described the scene:
“In an instant, the whole city was filled with dead bodies of every sex and age, and indeed amid such confusion and disorder that everyone was allowed to kill whoever he pleased. . . . Nevertheless, the main fury fell on our people [the Protestants]. . . . The continuous shooting of pistols, the frightful cries of those they slaughtered, the bodies thrown from windows . . . the breaking down of doors and windows, the stones thrown against them, and the looting of more than 600 homes over a long period can only bring before the eyes of the reader an unforgettable picture of the calamity appalling in every way.”
—The Huguenot Wars, Julian Coudy, 1969
Conflict between Catholics and Protestants was at the heart of the French Wars of Religion.
The French Wars of Religion By 1560, Calvinism and Catholicism had become highly militant (combative)
religions. They were aggressive in trying to win converts and in eliminating each other’s authority. Their struggle for the minds and hearts of Europeans was the chief cause of the religious wars that plagued Europe in the sixteenth century.
Voices from the Past
CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe 429
1598 Edict of Nantes recognizes rights of Huguenots in Catholic France
Main Ideas • In many European nations, Protestants
and Catholics fought for political and religious control.
• During the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, many European rulers extended their power and their borders.
Key Terms militant, armada
People to Identify Huguenots, Henry of Navarre, King Philip II, William the Silent, Elizabeth Tudor
Places to Locate Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland
Preview Questions 1. What were the causes and results
of France’s wars of religion? 2. How do the policies of Elizabeth I of
England and Philip II of Spain com- pare?
Reading Strategy Compare and Contrast As you read this section, complete a chart like the one below comparing characteristics of France, Spain, and England.
France Spain England
CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432 CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432
Reproducible Masters • Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–1 • Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1 • Guided Reading Activity 14–1 • Section Quiz 14–1 • Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1
Transparencies • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1
Multimedia Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Project transparency and have students answer questions.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS 1. 130 2. about 1900 3. England; the English ships had more cannons per ship than did the Spanish.
Europe in Crisis: The Wars of Religion
How many cannons did the English have?
Which side had more cannons? What does that tell you about the number of cannons carried by each ship?
1 2 3
= 10 ships = 100 cannons
B E L L R I N G E R Skillbuilder Activity
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–1
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: France: Gov- ernment: monarchy (Henry IV); Reli- gion: Catholic; Conflicts: French Wars of Religion (1562–1598); Spain: Gov- ernment: monarchy (Philip II); Reli- gion: Catholic; Conflicts: Battle of Lepanto (1571), revolt in Netherlands (1566–1609), Armada attacked Eng- land (1588); England: Government: monarchy (Elizabeth I); Religion: Protestant; Conflicts: defeated Span- ish Armada (1588)
Preteaching Vocabulary Have students define militant and use the word in their own sentence, applying it to a contemporary situation. L1
0426-453 CO14 TE-860703 3/11/04 12:19 PM Page 429
To solve the religious problem, the king issued the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The edict recognized Catholicism as the official religion of France, but it also gave the Huguenots the right to worship and to enjoy all political privileges, such as holding public offices.
Identifying List the sequence of events that led to the Edict of Nantes.
Philip II and Militant Catholicism The greatest supporter of militant Catholicism in
the second half of the sixteenth century was King Philip II of Spain, the son and heir of Charles V. The reign of King Philip II, which extended from 1556 to 1598, ushered in an age of Spanish greatness, both politically and culturally.
The first major goal of Philip II was to consolidate the lands he had inherited from his father. These included Spain, the Netherlands, and possessions in Italy and the Americas. To strengthen his control, Philip insisted on strict conformity to Catholicism and strong monarchical authority.
The Catholic faith was important to both Philip II and the Spanish people. During the late Middle Ages, Catholic kingdoms in Spain had reconquered Mus- lim areas within Spain and expelled the Spanish Jews. Driven by this crusading heritage, Spain saw itself as a nation of people chosen by God to save Catholic Christianity from the Protestant heretics.
Philip II, the “Most Catholic King,” became a cham- pion of Catholic causes, a role that led to spectacular victories and equally spectacular defeats. Spain’s lead- ership of a Holy League against the Turks, for exam- ple, resulted in a stunning victory over the Turkish fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571. Philip was not so fortunate in his conflicts with England (discussed in the following section) and the Netherlands.
The Spanish Netherlands, which consisted of 17 provinces (modern Netherlands and Belgium), was one of the richest parts of Philip’s empire. Philip attempted to strengthen his control in this important region. The nobles of the Netherlands, who resented the loss of their privileges, strongly opposed Philip’s efforts. To make matters worse, Philip tried to crush Calvinism in the Netherlands. Violence erupted in 1566 when Calvinists—especially nobles—began to destroy statues in Catholic churches. Philip sent ten thousand troops to crush the rebellion.
In the northern provinces, the Dutch, under the leadership of William the Silent, the prince of
Reading Check
430 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
However, economic, social, and political forces also played an important role in these conflicts.
Of the sixteenth-century religious wars, none was more shattering than the French civil wars known as the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598). Religion was at the center of these wars. The French kings per- secuted Protestants, but the persecution did little to stop the spread of Protestantism.
Huguenots (HYOO•guh•NAWTS) were French Protestants influenced by John Calvin. They made up only about 7 percent of the total French population, but 40 to 50 percent of the nobil- ity became Huguenots. Included in this group of nobles was the house of Bourbon, which ruled the southern French kingdom of Navarre and stood next to the Valois dynasty in the royal line of succession. The conversion of so many nobles made the Huguenots a powerful political threat to the Crown.
Still, the Catholic majority greatly outnumbered the Huguenot minority, and the Valois monarchy was strongly Catholic. In addition, an extreme Catholic party—known as the ultra-Catholics—strongly opposed the Huguenots. Possessing the loyalty of sections of northern and northwestern France, the ultra-Catholics could recruit and pay for large armies.
Although the religious issue was the most impor- tant issue, other factors played a role in the French civil wars. Towns and provinces, which had long resisted the growing power of the French monarchy, were willing to assist nobles in weakening the monarchy. The fact that so many nobles were Huguenots created an important base of opposition to the king.
For 30 years, battles raged in France between the Catholic and Huguenot sides. Finally, in 1589, Henry of Navarre, the political leader of the Huguenots and a member of the Bourbon dynasty, succeeded to the throne as Henry IV. He realized that as a Protes- tant he would never be accepted by Catholic France, so he converted to Catholicism. When he was crowned king in 1594, the fighting in France finally came to an end.
Bay of Biscay
Henry of Navarre
CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432 CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432
Enrich Under Philip II, Spain was intol- erant of any diversity of belief, ready to undertake “holy war” against any who did not profess the Catholic faith. Philip II’s reign was also the time when writers and artists such as Cer- vantes and El Greco lived and flourished. Ask students to spec- ulate about how religious intoler- ance and artistic freedom might coexist. L2
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–1
I. The French Wars of Religion (pages 429–430)
A. Calvinism and Catholicism had become militant (combative) religions by 1560. Their struggle for converts and against each other was the main cause of Europe’s sixteenth- century religious wars.
B. The French civil wars known as the French Wars of Religion (1562–1598) were shatter- ing. The Huguenots were French Protestants influenced by John Calvin. Only 7
t f th l ti H t d l t 50 t f th bilit
Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes
Chapter 14, Section 1
Did You Know? During the reign of her half-sister Mary, Elizabeth was arrested and sent to the Tower of London on suspi- cion of contributing to a plot to overthrow the government and restore Protestantism. After two months of interrogation and spying revealed no conclusive evidence of treason, Elizabeth was released from the Tower and placed in close custody for a year.
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
Guided Reading Activity 14–1
Name Date Class
DIRECTIONS: Answer the following questions as you read Section 1.
1. Name the chief cause of religious wars that plagued Europe in the sixteenth century.
2. Who were the Huguenots?
3. What issues besides the religious played a role in the French civil wars?
4. What event brought the French Wars of Religion to an end?
5. How did Philip II strengthen his control over Spain?
6. How did Spain see herself as a Catholic nation?
Guided Reading Activity 14-1
Answer: Wars of Religion occurred; Henry of Navarre succeeded to throne; Henry converted to Catholi- cism and issued Edict of Nantes, making Catholicism the official reli- gion of France.
1 2 3
Monitoring Comprehension One of the most important reading strategies students can learn is that they can monitor their own reading comprehension. Instruct them to try to be aware of the exact point when they have missed something. They can do this by periodically asking themselves key questions, such as “Can I re-phrase the main point of this paragraph?” or “How does this sec- tion connect to the one before it?” If they do not understand an important idea, students should re-read, review, or read further to clarify what is unclear. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities in the TCR.
0426-453 CO14 TE-860703 3/24/04 7:31 AM Page 430
431CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
Orange, offered growing resistance. The struggle dragged on until 1609, when a 12-year truce ended the war. The northern provinces began to call them- selves the United Provinces of the Netherlands and became the core of the modern Dutch state. In fact, the seventeenth century has often been called the golden age of the Dutch Republic because the United Provinces held center stage as one of Europe’s great powers.
Philip’s reign ended in 1598. At that time, Spain had the most populous empire in the world. Spain controlled almost all of South America and a number of settlements in Asia and Africa. To most Euro- peans, Spain still seemed to be the greatest power of the age.
In reality, however, Spain was not the great power that it appeared to be. Spain’s treasury was empty. Philip II had gone bankrupt from spending too much on war, and his successor did the same by spending a fortune on his court. The armed forces were out-of-date, and the government was ineffi- cient. Spain continued to play the role of a great power, but real power in Europe had shifted to Eng- land and France.
Describing How important was Catholicism to Philip II and the Spanish people?
Reading Check
500 miles0
North Sea
M e d i t e r r a n e a n S e a
Baltic Sea
Height of Spanish Power, c. 1560
Spanish lands were located throughout Europe.
1. Applying Geogra- phy Skills What dif- ficulties must Philip II have encountered administering an empire of this size?
Philip II of Spain
Austrian Hapsburg lands (under Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor), 1560
Spanish Hapsburg lands (under Philip II, King of Spain), 1560
Boundary of the Holy Roman Empire
Organized revolt
The England of Elizabeth In this section, you will learn how
the defeat of the Spanish Armada guaranteed that Eng- land would remain a Protestant country and signaled the beginning of Spain’s decline as a sea power. When Elizabeth Tudor ascended the throne in
1558, England had fewer than four million people. During her reign, the small island kingdom became the leader of the Protestant nations of Europe and laid the foundations for a world empire.
Intelligent, careful, and self-confident, Elizabeth moved quickly to solve the difficult religious prob- lem she inherited from her Catholic half-sister, Queen Mary Tudor. She repealed the laws favoring Catholics. A new Act of Supremacy named Elizabeth as “the only supreme governor” of both church and state. The Church of England under Elizabeth was basically Protestant, but it followed a moderate Protestantism that kept most people satisfied.
Elizabeth was also moderate in her foreign policy. She tried to keep Spain and France from becoming too powerful by balancing power. If one nation seemed to be gaining in power, England would sup- port the weaker nation. The queen feared that war would be disastrous for England and for her own rule, but she could not escape a conflict with Spain.
CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432 CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432
Answer: communication, travel, enforcing laws, collecting taxes
Critical Thinking Have students discuss the ways Elizabeth I of England pursued policies based on moderation. (religious policy, foreign policy, stayed out of alliances that might cause war) L1
3 ASSESS Assign Section 1 Assessment as homework or as an in-class activity.
Have students use Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM.
DIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTIONDIFFERENTIATED INSTRUCTION At-Risk Students Divide the class into groups. Assign each group one of the three major religious wars of the period: French Wars of Religion, Philip II’s battles in the Netherlands, and the Spanish Armada’s battles with England. Allow ten minutes for each group to list the religious, social, and political issues involved in these wars. Then, as a class, combine the ideas into a chart or poster. You may want to assign a follow-up writing activity in which each student describes which war was the most important and explains why. L1
Refer to Inclusion for the High School Social Studies Classroom Strategies and Activities in the TCR.
Why was the defeat of the Spanish Armada significant for England? (strengthened England and Protes- tantism) L1
Answer: They saw themselves as chosen by God to save Catholicism from Protestant heretics.
Section Quiz 14–1
DIRECTIONS: Matching Match each item in Column A with the items in Column B. Write the correct letters in the blanks. (10 points each)
Column A
1. combative
3. fleet of warships
5. anti-Huguenot party
DIRECTIONS: Multiple Choice In the blank, write the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. (10 points each)
6. When Henry of Navarre became Henry IV, he A. invaded England. C. converted to Catholicism.
Name Date Class
Score ScoreChapter 14
Section Quiz 14-1
21 SS.A.3.4.2
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1. Key terms are in blue. 2. Huguenots (p.430); Henry of
Navarre (p.430); Edict of Nantes (p.430); King Philip II (p.430); William the Silent (p.430); Eliza- beth Tudor (p.431)
3. See chapter maps. 4. Catholicism: state religion;
Huguenots: gained religious, politi- cal rights
5. repealed laws favoring Catholics, moderate Protestantism
6. believed in cause, had faith in a miracle
7. Henry: converted to Catholicism, moderate, kept Catholicism as state religion, gave Huguenots rights; Philip: Catholic, militant champion of Catholic causes; Eliza- beth: Protestant, moderate in reli-
gion and politics, Henry/Elizabeth: moderate policies; Henry/Philip: Catholicism state religion
8. Answers should be supported by evidence.
9. Answers will vary. He had been assured that the English would revolt against their queen.
Answer: He had been assured that the English would rise up against Elizabeth when the Spanish arrived.
CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432 CHAPTER 14 Section 1, 429–432
Answers: 1. length: 350 miles (560 km);
width: west end: 112 miles (180 km); east end: 21 miles (34 km)
2. getting trapped in narrow east end of channel
Reteaching Activity Ask students to give oral sum- maries of the French Wars of Religion, Philip II’s reign, and the Spanish Armada’s defeat. L1
4 CLOSE Ask students to discuss which wars of religion they consider the most important and why. L2
Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–1
Do you think having a single individual with total power to govern a nation could ever be good for a nation? Why or why not?
In this section, you will learn how conflict between Catholics and Protestants led to wars in many European nations. At the same time, many European rulers increased their power and their territories.
Use the chart below to help you take notes. Identify the country and religion of the following rulers, and summarize their achievements.
Reading Essentials and Study Guide Chapter 14, Section 1
For use with textbook pages 429–433
Name Date Class
21 3
200 miles0
Philip II of Spain had toyed for years with the idea of invading England. His advisers assured him that the people of England would rise against their queen when the Spaniards arrived. In any case, a successful invasion of England would mean the overthrow of Protestantism and a return to Catholicism.
In 1588, Philip ordered preparations for an armada—a fleet of warships—to invade England. The fleet that set sail had neither the ships nor the man- power that Philip had planned to send. An officer of the Spanish fleet reveals the basic flaw: “It is well known that we fight in God’s cause. . . . But unless God helps us by a miracle, the English, who have faster and handier ships than ours, and many more long-range guns . . . will . . . stand aloof and knock us to pieces with their guns, without our being able to do them any serious hurt.”
The hoped-for miracle never came. The Spanish fleet, battered by a number of encounters with the English, sailed back to Spain by a northward route around Scotland and Ireland, where it was pounded by storms. Many of the Spanish ships sank.
Explaining Why was Philip II confi- dent that the Spanish could successfully invade England?
Reading Check
Route of the Spanish Armada
Defeat of the Spanish Armada, 1588
England defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588.
1. Interpreting Maps Use the map to estimate the length and width of the English Channel.
2. Applying Geography Skills What were the Spanish hoping to avoid by taking the northern route back to Spain?
Checking for Understanding 1. Define militant, armada.
2. Identify Huguenots, Henry of Navarre, Edict of Nantes, King Philip II, William the Silent, Elizabeth Tudor.
3. Locate Netherlands, Scotland, Ireland.
4. Describe how the Edict of Nantes appeased both Catholics and Huguenots.
5. List the ways Elizabeth demonstrated moderation in her religious policy.
Critical Thinking 6. Making Generalizations Why did
Philip II send out his fleet knowing he did not have enough ships or manpower?
7. Compare and Contrast Use a Venn diagram like the one below to compare and contrast the reigns of Henry of Navarre, Philip II, and Elizabeth Tudor.
Analyzing Visuals 8. Examine the painting of the Saint
Bartholomew’s Day massacre shown on page 429 of your text. Is the work an objective depiction of the event, or can you find evidence of artistic bias in the painting?
9. Persuasive Writing Write a persua- sive essay arguing whether it was a good idea for Philip II to sail against England. Identify the main reason the king of Spain decided to invade.
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1. This passage is full of such phrases; for example: “I do esteem it [your love] more than any treasure or riches;” “. . . I have reigned with your love;” “. . . that never thought was cherished in my heart that tended not unto my people’s good.”
2. God (“a higher Judge”) 3. Answers will vary, but students should support their
point of view with logical arguments. You might wish to
compare and contrast how modern-day citizens feel about their governments. You might also wish to dis- cuss and compare how citizens living today can express their feelings toward government with the means that were available to citizens living during the time of absolute monarchs.
Queen Elizabeth’s Golden Speech IN 1601, NEAR THE END OF her life, Queen Elizabeth made a speech to Parliament, giving voice to the feeling that existed between the queen and her subjects.
“I do assure you there is no prince that loves his sub- jects better, or whose love can contradict our love. There is no jewel, be it of never so rich a price, which I set before this jewel; I mean your love. For I do esteem it more than any treasure or riches.
And, though God has raised me high, yet this I count the glory of my crown, that I have reigned with your love. This makes me that I do not so much rejoice that God has made me to be a Queen, as to be a Queen over so thankful a people.
Of myself I must say this: I never was any greedy, scraping grasper, nor a strait, fast-holding Prince, nor yet a waster. My heart was never set on any worldly goods, but only for my subjects’ good. What you bestow on me, I will not hoard it up, but receive it to bestow on you again. Yea, mine own properties I account yours, to be expended for your good. . . .
I have ever used to set the Last-Judgement Day before mine eyes, and so to rule as I shall be judged to answer before a higher Judge, to whose judge- ment seat I do appeal, that never thought was cher- ished in my heart that tended not unto my people’s good. . . .
There will never Queen sit in my seat with more zeal to my country, care for my subjects, and that will sooner with willingness venture her life for your good and safety, than myself. For it is my desire to live nor reign no longer than my life and reign
Queen Elizabeth of England, Faced with the Spanish Armada 1588, Reviews Her Troops by Ferdinand Piloty the Younger, 1861.
should be for your good. And though you have had and may have many princes more mighty and wise sitting in this seat, you never had nor shall have any that will be more careful and loving.”
—Queen Elizabeth I, The Golden Speech
Analyzing Primary Sources
1. Identify phrases that convey Queen Elizabeth’s feeling for her subjects.
2. To whom does Elizabeth feel accountable?
3. Which is more important: how subjects and rulers feel about each other or the policies and laws that rulers develop?
TEACH Analyzing Primary Sources In this speech, Elizabeth character- izes her feelings toward her sub- jects. Have students, in a brief essay, compare and contrast her ideas about a ruler’s attitude toward his or her subjects with Louis XIV’s ideas, as reflected in his speech excerpted on page 443 of this chapter. How do their attitudes reflect the difference between a constitutional monar- chy and an absolute monarchy? Ask students to incorporate spe- cific quotations that support their conclusions. L2
Critical Thinking In her speech, Elizabeth acknowledges the divine right of rulers when she says, “God has raised me high,” and “God has made me to be a queen.” How- ever, her beliefs about divine right differ sharply from other rulers discussed in this chapter. Have students, in a brief essay, compare her views about divine right with the views of Jacques Bossuet, a seventeenth-century French bishop, excerpted on page 441 of this chapter. Ask stu- dents to incorporate specific quotations that support their conclusions. L2 L3
FCAT LA.A.2.2.7
1 FOCUS Section Overview This section describes the results of the Thirty Years’ War and the English and Glorious Revolutions.
1603 Elizabeth I dies
1649 Charles I is executed
1688 Glorious Revolution
Guide to Reading
Preview of Events 1600 1620 1640 1660 1680 1700
The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648) was a devastating religious war. A resident of Magdeburg, Germany, a city sacked ten times during the war, reported:
“There was nothing but beating and burning, plundering, torture, and murder. Most especially was every one of the enemy bent on securing [riches]. . . . In this frenzied rage, the great and splendid city was now given over to the flames, and thousands of innocent men, women and children, in the midst of heartrending shrieks and cries, were tortured and put to death in so cruel and shameful a manner that no words would suffice to describe. Thus in a single day this noble and famous city, the pride of the whole country, went up in fire and smoke.”
—Readings in European History, James Harvey Robinson, 1934
This destruction of Magdeburg was one of the disasters besetting Europe during this time.
Economic and Social Crises From 1560 to 1650, Europe witnessed severe economic and social crises.
One major economic problem was inflation, or rising prices. What caused this rise in prices? The great influx of gold and silver from the Americas was one factor. Then, too, a growing population in the sixteenth century increased the demand for land and food and drove up prices for both.
Voices from the Past
of the Holy Roman Empire. • Democratic ideals were strengthened as
a result of the English and Glorious Rev- olutions.
Key Terms inflation, witchcraft, divine right of kings, commonwealth
People to Identify James I, Puritans, Charles I, Cavaliers, Roundheads, Oliver Cromwell, James II
Places to Locate Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia
Preview Questions 1. What problems troubled Europe from
1560 to 1650? 2. How did the Glorious Revolution
undermine the divine right of kings?
Reading Strategy Summarizing Information As you read this section, use a chart like the one below to identify which conflicts were prompted by religious concerns.
Religious Conflicts
434 CHAPTER 14 Crisis and Absolutism in Europe
CHAPTER 14 Section 2, 434–439 CHAPTER 14 Section 2, 434–439
Reproducible Masters • Reproducible Lesson Plan 14–2 • Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes 14–2 • Guided Reading Activity 14–2 • Section Quiz 14–2 • Reading Essentials and Study Guide 14–2
Transparencies • Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2
Multimedia Interactive Tutor Self-Assessment CD-ROM ExamView® Pro Testmaker CD-ROM Presentation Plus! CD-ROM
Project transparency and have students answer questions.
Social Crises, War, and Revolution
Copyright © by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. ANSWERS 1. the English Revolution 2. not much 3. Parliament offered the throne to William and Mary
What was the most famous civil war in England?
What was the position of Parliament on the divine right of kings?
How did the Glorious Revolution affect the monarchy?
1 2 3
The right of
B E L L R I N G E R Skillbuilder Activity
Daily Focus Skills Transparency 14–2
Guide to Reading
Answers to Graphic: Religious Con- flicts: witchcraft craze, Thirty Years’ War, English Civil War, Glorious Rev- olution
Preteaching Vocabulary The text defines a commonwealth as a republic. Using a dictionary, have students research the archaic mean- ing of the term commonwealth and explain how it applies to the idea of a republic. L1
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Answer: influx of gold and silver from Americas; growing population increased demand for foo

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