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  • Designing Community-Driven Development Operations in Fragile

    and Conflict-Affected Situations Lessons from a stocktaking

    S O C I A L D E V E L O P M E N T D E P A R T M E N T

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  • S O C I A L D E V E L O P M E N T D E P A R T M E N T

  • Jacomina de regt, shruti majumdar,

    and Janmejay singh

    Designing Community-Driven Development Operations in Fragile

    and Conflict-Affected Situations

    S O C I A L D E V E L O P M E N T D E P A R T M E N T

    Lessons from a stocktaking

  • ii

    Copyright © 2013

    The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development /

    The World Bank Group

    1818 H Street, NW

    Washington, DC 20433, USA

    All rights reserved

    First printing: November 2013

    Manufactured in the United States of America

    Please cite this report as follows:

    World Bank. 2013. “Designing Community-Driven Development Operations inFragile and Conflict-Affected

    Situations: Lessons from a Stocktaking.” Social Development Department, World Bank, Washington, DC.

    Photo credit: Curt Carnemark, World Bank, 1993.

    The findings, interpretations, and conclusions expressed in this report are entirely those of the authors and

    should not be attributed in any manner to the World Bank, or its affiliated organizations, or to members of its

    board of executive directors or the countries they represent. The World Bank does not guarantee the accuracy

    of the data included in this publication and accepts no responsibility whatsoever for any consequence of

    their use. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this volume

    do not imply on the part of the World Bank Group any judgment on the legal status of any territory or the

    endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.

  • iii

    Contents

    Acknowledgments.............................................................................................................................................. v

    Abbreviations.and.Acronyms.......................................................................................................................... vi

    Executive.Summary.........................................................................................................................................viii

    I.. Introduction................................................................................................................................................... 1

    II.. .Methodology.and.Sample.for.the.Stocktaking.................................................................................. 5

    III...Summary.of.the.Main.Findings.from.the.Stocktaking...................................................................... 8

    IV... Choices.and.Emerging.Guidance.in.10.Design.Areas......................................................................... 15 4.1 . Preparatory Diagnostics ................................................................................................................................................................ 15

    4.2 . Overall Objectives ........................................................................................................................................................................... 17

    4.3. Institutional Arrangements at the National Level ............................................................................................................ 18

    4.4. Institutional Arrangements at the Sub-national Level ................................................................................................... 21

    4.5. Learning by Doing ........................................................................................................................................................................... 23

    4.6. Targeting .............................................................................................................................................................................................. 24

    4.7. Menu Choices, Grant Sizes, and Grant Cycles .................................................................................................................. 27

    4.8. Community Mobilization and Facilitation ..........................................................................................................................29

    4.9. Governance (including Fiduciary) and Monitoring and Evaluation .......................................................................... 32

    4.10. Peace Building and Social Cohesion Elements .................................................................................................................. 34

    V.. .Some.Overall.Guiding.Principles.for.Design...................................................................................... 36

    VI.. .Looking.to.the.Future:.Areas.for.Further.Research.and.Action.................................................... 39

    VII..Concluding.Thoughts................................................................................................................................ 42

    References.......................................................................................................................................................... 45

    Annexes................................................................................................................................................................ 47 1 Definitions of Fragility and Conflict ............................................................................................................................................48

    2 Tables Related to the Sample.........................................................................................................................................................49

    3 Select Summary Tables from the Stocktaking Study ......................................................................................................... 55

    4 Summary Tables and Figures to Understand and Inform Design Choices ................................................................68

    Boxes 1 The Challenge of Community-Driven Development in Fragile and Conflict-Affected Situations ..................3

    2 Hawalla Dealers: Adapting to the Local Banking System in Afghanistan ....................................................................33

    3 Summarizing the Core Recommendations Emerging from the Stocktaking on CDD-FCS Design .................43

    4 Simplified Procedures and Flexibility in the New OP 10 ....................................................................................................44

  • iv

    Figures 1 Sample CDD-FCS Operations Studied, 1997–2013 .................................................................................................................. 6

    2 Fragile Versus Post-conflict Countries in the Sample ............................................................................................................7

    3 Typical Assessment Types for Preparatory Diagnostics ...................................................................................................... 15

    4 Methods of Approaching Preparatory Diagnostics and Associated Constraints ................................................... 16

    5 Different Objectives and Mechanisms that CDD Caters to in FCS ............................................................................... 18

    6 Coordinating and Implementing Aagency Choices at the National Level ................................................................. 19

    7 Design Choices and Actors that Define Sub-national Institutional Arrangements in CDD .............................. 22

    8 Four Choices for Learning by Doing ........................................................................................................................................... 23

    9 Three Levels of Targeting Decisions and Modalities ........................................................................................................... 25

    10 Decision Choices around Eligible Activities and Grants .................................................................................................... 27

    11 Hiring Facilitators: Typology, Advantages, and Disadvantages ....................................................................................... 30

    12 Options for establishing community committees ................................................................................................................ 31

    13 Examples of Peace Building and Social Cohesion Elements ......................

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