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COOPERATIVE and COLLABORATIVE LEARNING. : 1.Interaction patterns &Theoretical Perspectives regarding CL 2.Elements cooperative learning: 3.Characteritics of 4. Class activities that use cooperative learning : . What are the differences between cooperative &Traditional groups? . 5 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



:1.Interaction patterns &Theoretical Perspectives regarding CL2.Elementscooperative learning: 3.Characteritics of4. Class activities that use cooperative learning :. What are the differences between cooperative &Traditional groups?.56.Advantages & Disadvantages:7.Some guidelines to manipulate cooperative learning:8.Credits and References:


Interaction Patterns:PROMOTIVE: Encouraging and facilitating each others efforts to achieve

OPPOSITIONAL: Discouraging and obstructing each others efforts to achieve.NO INTERACTION.

Theoretical Perspectives An approach to teaching and learning in which classrooms are organized so that students work together in small co-operative teams. Richards(2002)Learning that results from group work in which the participants engage in collaborative dialogue , i . e. each student adds to or extends his/her partners contributions . Ellis (2004) Cooperative learning techniques are tools which teachers use to encourage mutual helpfulness in the groups and active participation of all members . George M. Jacobs and Stephen Hall(2002)

ELEMENTSPositive InterdependenceFace to Face InteractionIndividual and Group AccountabilityInterpersonal and Small Group Skills Group ProcessingSink or swim togetherPromotion of each others successNo hitchhiking ; No social loafingSocial skills must be taughtGroups decision about changing or continuing behaviors

Positive InterdependenceStudents have two responsibilities: learn the assigned materialensure that all members of the group learn the materialEach student should see his or her contribution as essential for group success.each student makes unique contributionInterdependence occurs when students cannot succeed unless all their group members also succeed. Successful interaction occurs as a result of positive interdependenceFace-to-Face InteractionThey orally explain how to solve a problem.Teach his/her knowledge to other teammates.Checking for understanding.Discuss concepts being learned.

Individual AccountabilityTeacher must assess (directly or indirectly) how much effort each member is contributing to the groups work.

Teacher must provide feedback to groups and individual students.

Teacher must help groups avoid redundant efforts by members.

Teacher must ensure that every member is responsible for the final outcome.Social SkillsStudents must get to know and trust one another.Social skills are experimented.Students must communicate accurately and unambiguously.Students must accept and support each other.Students must resolve conflicts constructively.Group ProcessingAt the end of the process, students reflect to determine which member actions were helpful and which were harmful.Students then make decisions about which actions to continue, change, or delete.Such processing allows groups to:focus on maintaining good working relationships.learn and improve cooperative skills.provide feedback on member participation.think at a meta cognitive level as well as cognitive level.celebrate success of the group.Characteristics of cooperative learning: (Storch , 2002)

Predominance of first person plural pronouns. Few or absence directives thereof. Text co constructed. Language related episodes are initiated by means of a request.Interactive responses that are often incorporated.Evidence of scaffolding.

Class activities that use cooperative learningJigsaw

Think-Pair Share

Three Step InterviewRoundRobin BrainstormingThree minute reviewNumbered Heads Together

Each group member is assigned some material to learn and then to teach to his/her group members.Individuals Think , then Pair up, and then Share their responses.Interview his/her partner Reverse roles Share their responses. A question with some answers Think time Share their responses.Teacher lectures - then give students3 min. to review Ask questions. Each is given a No. Questions are asked They work together Numbered students answer.

Team Pair Solo

Circle the Sage

PartnersStudents do problems first as a Team, then with a partner, and finally on their own .(mediated learning)First the sages on the topic in the class are selected, then they spread in the groups ,NO TWO MEMBERS OF THE SAME TEAM GO TO THE SAME SAGE, then group members return to their teams . Each in turn explains what they learnt.Half of each team is given an assignment to be able to teach the other half . They quiz or tutor teammates. Whats the difference?Cooperative Group Traditional Group Positive interdependence No interdependenceIndividual accountability No individual accountabilityHeterogeneous membership Homogeneous membershipShared leadership One leaderResponsible to each other Responsibly only for selfTask & maintenance emphasized Only task emphasizedSocial skills directly taught Skills assumed or ignoredTeacher observes & intervenes Teacher ignores groupsGroup processing occurs No group processingMutual assistance CompetitiveFlexible roles between the teacher Reliance on transmission of knowledge and students through teacher presentation Why use cooperative learning ?

Promote student learning significantly moreIncrease student retentionEnhance student satisfaction with their learning experienceHelp students develop skills in oral communicationDevelop students social skillPromote student self-esteemHelp to promote positive race relations

Some critical perspectiveSSharan (2010) : The constant evolution of cooperative learning as a threat Resistance and hostility of students toward their group matesVague objectivesIt isnt systematically put in placeEncouraging only lower-level thinkingToo great a burden on some studentsPoor expectations for accountabilityAn avoidance of teaching

Some guidelines to manipulate cooperative learning groups: (Jacobs & Halls,2002)

How big should groups be?How should groups be formed?How get students' attention?What can be done if the noise level becomes too high?What if a student doesn't want to work in group?What if some group finish earlier than others?What if a few students are frequently absent?How long should groups work together?How should groups be ended?

Credits and References Jack, c., Richards , & Willy, A., Renandya (2002). Methodology in language teaching. Cambridge 49-58Ellis, R. (2004). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford 269-272 cooperative learning and collaborative learning working in team

Thanks 4 ur attention