Connected Cities

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The ideas explored in Connected Cities chart the emergence of a political and economic phenomenon-the city as the new connected republic of the 21st Century. Simon Willis, Global Head of eGovernment for the Internet Business Solutions Group at Cisco Systems, has collated essays that show how different cities, at the cutting edge of the process, are grappling with the various stages of connectivity.

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<ul><li>1.Thought Leaders Essays from urban innovators Edited by Simon Willis </li></ul><p>2. Cities ContentsPreface2 Simon Willis, Director of the European Public Sector team, Internet Business Solutions Group, Cisco SystemsDubai 12 Saeed Al Muntafiq, Director General, Dubai Development and Investment AuthorityBarcelona20 Joan Clos, Mayor of BarcelonaNew York 28 Michael R Bloomberg, Mayor of the City of New YorkStockholm36 Monica Bernestrm, Head of Development TIME at the Economic Development Agency; Anita Ferm, Director of Education Administration and Per-Olof Gustafsson, Deputy Managing Director, Economic Development Office, StockholmMilan44 Silvio Scaglia, Chairman of e.Biscom, MilanWroclaw50 Slawomir Najnigier, Deputy Mayor of WroclawManchester 54 Dave Carter, Director of the Digital Development Agency, ManchesterHamburg68 Senator Gunnar Uldall, Minister for the Economy and Employment, HamburgHillingdon A case study: How to create the business case74 Pacey Cheales, Corporate Programme Manager, Hillingdon Improvement Programme and Steve Palmer, Head of Technology and Communications, Hillingdon CouncilBiographies1101 3. Preface Simon Willis, Director, Public Sector, Internet Business Solutions Group, Cisco Systems, Europe, Middle East and Africa This is a book about cities, largelyneed flows more effectively to wherewritten by cities. It is also a book people are, then there is less imperative toabout the future of the city and bring them all into the same place.therefore a book about the Secondly, more collaborative ways of future of the place where most of us live.working and decision-making emerge and The city leaders writing here are a diverse this changes the relationship of the city group and their experiences withwith itself and with its citizens. connecting themselves and their citizens are very different but a number ofIn the following sections I look at three common themes emerge, which taken themes that emerge from the essays. The together and carried forward, suggest thatfirst is the changing nature of work and we are on the brink of some veryparticularly the increasing importance of profound changes. collaboration in the successful enterprise. This is a much wider trend that cities are People construct the endlessly complexinevitably effected by. The second is the architectures of their cities over time growing realisation that for the city to driven by their desire to be with eachchange in the way enterprises have other, learn from each other, and growchanged, they require the kind of economically, culturally and spiritually. Toinformation exchange environment that serve these desires, cities have createdenterprises now take for granted. In the physical spaces and mechanisms; the process they may have discovered the next street, the marketplace or the coffee pervasive social infrastructure to follow shops. In our own age these have been water, roads, power and telecoms. The supplemented by digital spaces. As thethird theme is political a new model for means for the instant exchange of digital the polis becomes possible when new information are built, a new dynamicways of working are combined with a new emerges at the heart of what makes a city pervasive social infrastructure. These cities information can flow towards people are collaboratively reconstructing rather than people towards information. themselves around the needs of their citizens. What emerges is the As this dynamic begins to affect work so it connected republic. has subtle but profound effects on the nature of the city. Firstly, the boundaries The first common theme we see emerging of the working day and of the workplace in these essays is that changes in ways of begin to blur. Cities are partly defined by working are starting to effect the citys days and offices. If the information people fundamental strategic planning. The first 2 4. essay from Dubai by a true innovator andverbal information is that networked entrepreneur, Saeed al Muntafiq, Director information takes the best route General of Dubai Development andtraditional information goes from point to Investment Authority, shows how point, while networked information takes digitisation and networking develops thethe best route it can find. One of the way people work. Dubai constantly implications of this is that it becomes reinvents itself around the concept of theharder to control. This makes it both more trading hub. Demands for education andresilient and harder to gatekeep. With IP medicine across a huge area are networking, fewer premiums are placed converging on Dubais new knowledge on, and less power is given to, the city built on a fibre infrastructure. gatekeepers of information. This is potentially revolutionary. In the essay from Barcelona by Joan Clos, visionary mayor of Barcelona, you see anIn connected cities, power and influence is example of an innovative, creative anda function of how well you facilitate competitive city that has seized thenetworks of information and action, not opportunity to change itself again andhow much information you control. again over the past few decades. MayorCollaboration and facilitation supplant Clos has put education at the heart of hishierarchy and formal structure as the citys endless recreation of itself.dominant tests of effective organisation. It is not surprising to find cultures that The essay from New York by Mayoralready tend towards the collaborative are Bloomberg shows how digitisation andat the forefront of this revolution. Our networking change the nature of work by fourth essay is a collective work from developing collaboration. The traditional Anita Ferm, Education Director of the City model of government put public servants of Stockholm, Per-Olof Gustafsson, Deputy in a position of gatekeepers, controlling Managing Director of Stockholms flows of information. The focus was to getEconomic Development Office and Monica access to the information to control it,Bernestrom, Head of the Department to trade it, to protect it. In New York (as TIME (Telecom, IT, Media and elsewhere) networked information hasEntertainment|). Stockholm is a city changed the nature of gatekeeping.whose long-standing enthusiasm for collaboration has given it an edge in the One of the differences between networkedstruggle to embrace new thinking. information and telephonic, mailed or 3 5. Preface Many cities are on the brink of taking aa slightly different set of effects on the fundamentally new step in their thinking. nature of our cities. It is in the nature of That is to categorise, in their minds,many of these infrastructures that the communications infrastructure as on the market cannot provide them at the outset. same level as roads, railways, dams and We all are aware that water and transport airports. The cities highlighted in this book are first developed as a social (and many others) know that they need toinfrastructure, in the first instance created, modernise their cities so that people can paid for and owned by the public sector. interact within them more effectively. If a What emerges from these city essays is city is sufficiently connected, thenthe possibility that the next pervasive investors will arrive and find the right kind social infrastructure that society wants of employees. Competitive cities areto advance to the next stage, is increasingly regarding real broadband broadband fibre. networks as belonging in the same political and investment categories asAlthough there are exceptions, it appears transport networks. Fibre infrastructure forthat the public sector may have a key role a couple of million people is equivalent in to play in this development. There are two cost to a couple of miles of highway. Itfundamental reasons why a pervasive has become a viable option for a city social infrastructure cannot generally be investing in its future. The question is, effectively provided by the market. Firstly, whether and when it will become anthat the investment required in this case imperative. (in order to achieve critical mass in connectivity) is so huge that the market All those reading this book will be acutely cannot move, because the services cannot aware of the rapid growth of the amount be provided to the consumer by the and the speed of connectivity in the past private sector until the connectivity is ten years. This transformation is available and the connectivity cannot be happening much faster than previous invested in until the demand for future revolutions. If you go to the Linx server services is understood. (www.linx.net) and look at internet activity over Europes largest internet exchange Investing in real broadband infrastructure point over recent years, you will see thatis expensive. The establishment of the dot-com crash apparently didnt telecoms presents the most obviously happen. Just about the only event that hascomparable example. To build the a significant impact on the graph isfundamental social infrastructure for Christmas. The apparent rollercoaster thattelecoms required public-sector we have been on since 2000 has been justintervention both at the beginning of that a trivial variation around a remorselessrevolution and well into it. Then came a upward rise in connectivity.point of maturity where it became appropriate to allow the market much Each of the pervasive social infrastructuresmore freedom. In fact, you may require that our cities are built around, such as the market to drive innovation onwards those for water and transport, have a and give the consumer more choice, but slightly different set of characteristics and there is a build-out stage where you 4 6. Preface require some kind of public investment the really fundamental passive longterm and public intervention to make it work. Ininfrastructure. The essays show different the case of real broadband the amount of models in different cities of what stands investment involved is large.between the infrastructure and the endusers. These allow people access to The second set of reasons as to why thedifferent service providers whether it is market cannot provide broadbandtelephony, video telephony, IP telephony, structure is based on what services people security applications around housing require. Someone investing inestates and into schools, and then infrastructure will have to get paybackeducation, healthcare provision, video on over such a long period of time that theydemand and entertainment and more. We will require exclusivity over the services still dont know what services will develop that they are going to provide. This limitsin this environment. It is clear that the field of access and services. The city somebody needs to sit between the decision-maker or public-sector decision-fundamental investment and the set of maker (who wants people to have access services that are going to be provided, to a wide range of entertainment services, and the city is emerging in many places as government services, communicationsthe vehicle to do that, on its own or services and so on) will find that their through a public/private partnership or needs are not met. City decision-makersthrough some other joint mechanism. may not want to have access limited and pre-defined by a single infrastructure Among our examples, the Milan story told investor or service provider.by the far-sighted Silvio Scaglia, Chairmanof e.Biscom, is of a pure private play. The The essays in this book show how availability of venture capital in the late different environments create different90s, the lack of pre-existing cable to models, but increasingly the city is prevent the new entrant from getting stepping in as a fundamental stakeholder rapid take-up of services and the density and investor. The city will invest in theof housing were a set of unique passive infrastructure for connectivity andcircumstances in Italy that allowed can borrow more cheaply than the private e-Biscom to take off in a really impressive sector. The city can run the business case way. Italian cities are only just beginning and will be able to sustain its borrowingto look at the wider set of city-service from quite a small stream of returns byapplications and aggregated demands giving access to the infrastructure. The citythat they want to use this infrastructure knows that this passive infrastructure (andfor. The Fastweb experience has not been Im thinking here about fibre) has about driven by the desire to put e-learning into 15-20 years of life in terms of its usability, schools or do initial primary care health which takes it beyond the type of return consultations in peoples living rooms. on investment calculations that most The driver for growth in Milan has come shareholder-owned companies andfrom the video on demand and video organisations are able to contemplate. telephony and entertainment and privatecommunication applications that So, the public sector steps in and funds people demanded.5 7. Preface That is one end of the spectrum and it hascomplex, and affected by the local political produced an interesting and successfulenvironment as well as local legal and business. The next step will be for those economic factors. One model is like a city governments (increasingly not just utility, which is majority-owned by the city Milan but many other Italian cities asbut has a lot of private-sector money and well) to look to the infrastructure investment. Wroclaws story as told by the to see how they can improve their own deputy mayor, Slawomir Najnigier, is a services as well as proving an attractive good example of that kind of approach, as investment environment for the growth they have actually used the heating utility of small businesses.(which has the holes in the ground) as a public/private vehicle to develop the Stokab is at the other end of the spectrumpassive infrastructure. Hamburg too, as in that it is a pure public play. There was a shown by Senator Gunnar Uldall, offers a very clear vision in Stockholm that the mixed model, where the private sector building of a knowledge economy and the leads and the public sector encourages attraction of inward investment and the and invests. In Hamburg, the public sector provision of better public services would will intervene as and when necessary, and all be facilitated by a fibre-based will ensure that through the services communications infrastructure. When you provided Hamburg remains a growing and read the essay by key Stockholm decision- successful trading hub. makers (and visionaries) Anita Ferm, Per-Olof Gustafsson and MonicaHow significant is this trend? We are Bernestrom, you see that at the very heartaware of at least 40 European cities that of it is not only a business plan but a are currently either planning or building profound belief that this would be thereal (Ethernet) broadband infrastructures. right way to go. They couldnt calculate allThe number increases weekly. It seems the benefits to Stockholm at the time thatlikely that somet...</p>