colorobbia digital inks

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Your Colour Partner

March. 2011 Patrick Cioni

Digital decoration advantages- Allows to decorate tiles with structure. - Can be used alone, or combined with traditional aplications. - Helps to make new projects faster. - Switching of models in production is easier. - Big size design.

Economic advantages- Increases the % of first choice. - Less personal in the glazing line. - Lower logistic costs - Reduces time in start-up and change of models. - Smaller stock due to reduced number of colours.

Colorobbia services and policy- Minimize change in glaze compositions. - Increase the technical background of the customers. - Study of Customer's Gammut.

It is possible to work with all the digital machines?Already homologated with: Projecta (Xaar) Tecnoferrari (Xaar) Cretaprint (Xaar) Intesa (Xaar) Kerajet (Seiko,Xaar) System-Rotodigit (Spectra Dimatix) In process of homologation Durst (Spectra Dimatix)

Which are Colorobbia colours?Cyan(Co-Al)

Cyan(Co-Si)

Brown

Pink

Beige

Yellow

Black

Green

Which are the advantages of Colorobbia Cinks? No toxicity No A.D.R.

Compatible with water

High stabilized organic-inorganic system. Eqilibrated and complete colour Gamut . Don't etch machines, nor Rotocolor drums.

Minimal cleaning during industrial production.

Which are the best ink configurations ?4 ColoursFloor Wall Floor Wall

5 Colours

6 Colours

Floor & Wall

Xaar printheadsTypical Alternatives

Seiko printheads

Typical

Alternatives

Why 4 colours?According to the colour laws, the basic colours are 3 : Blue, Magenta or Brown and Yellow .

In Four-colour process (CMYK), the Black colour helps to get darker tonalities, and to have a more efficient use of the colours.

Are 6 colours better than 4?

Yes , because : The basic ceramic gamut is limited. We add the Black to look for darker tonalities. Pink expands the Gamut. Beige widens yellow range.

Gamut traditional and digital

It is better a equlibrated colour range, or a intense one ?An equilibrated colour range is preferable, because it avoids the predominance of colours. The intensity is important, but always in a equilibrated system.

Can we reproduce all the tonalities ? Can we reproduce all Rotocolor models?

Not all the tonalities, but around 80% of the are in our Gamut. We can reproduce the colours that are in the customer Gamut. We can help with the conversion of a model from Rotocolor to digital impresion.

Which hardware and software we need to start?Hardware:

Powerful computer.Spectrophotometer Software: Photoshop. Programs for colour management.

Why the water condensation can be a problem?The water vapour of the tiles gets in contact with the printheads plate and inks increasing its viscosity. This leads to the formation of a thin layer of ink with higer viscosity which reduces the printing quality and forces to frequent cleaning.

How we can minimize the condensation problem?Reducing the tiles temperature down to 40 45 C before the digital printing.

How much ink we can apply on the tiles?

Machine of 4 printing bars. Maximum. 20 gr/m2 Normal. 5-6 gr/m2

Digital machineProduction line

2 Colour 1 Colour 3 Colour

4 Colour

Printheads

What is resolution or d.p.i?Resolution or d.p.i = DOTS PER INCH There is a Vertical Resolution also called native and fixed by the kind of print-heads used and an horizontal resolution which changes depending on the speed of production.

512 nozzles each row

Xaarprinthead7 cm360 dpi Fixed

RESOLUTIONChanges with speed

Row 1

Row 2

256 nozzles each row

SeikoPrinthead

7 cm

RESOLUCIN RESOLUTIONChanges with the speed

Row 1

Row 2

180180 dpi dpi Fija Fixed

How many printheads we need?Depends on the tile size: Each Printhead is 7 cm, so if you have tile wide 33 cm in the direccion of lhe line you will need 5 Printheads for each color

33 cm

The length of the tile is not important

How is related the speed of printing with the resolution?Speed 24 m/minXaar Spectra Seiko GS

Resolution* 360 dpi 180 dpi

33 m/min 270 dpi

48 m/min

36 m/min up to 460dpi 43m/min up to 554 dpi

Can we increase productivity without loosing print quality with Xaar Printheads?Yes, we can reduce the horizontal resolution without loosing quality. Acording to our experience , we can reduce horizontal resolution until 270 dpi without visible loss of quality, increasing the production speed up tol 33m/min. The resolution will be higher than RotocolorsDigital printing :360x270 dpi, and Rotocolor 100x100 dpi.

Drop formationXaar printheadBasic drop 6 pl 2x drop 6 pl 3x drop 6 pl 1 Level 2Level 3Level

7x drops 6 pl

7Level

6pl 12pl 18pl

42pl

pl =10exp12 litros = 0,000000000001 litros

Drop formationSeiko GS printheadBasic drop 12 pl 2x drop 12 pl 3x drop 12 pl 1 Level 2Level 3Level

7x drops 12pl

7Level

12pl 24pl 36pl

84pl

pl =10exp12 litros = 0,000000000001 litros

Drop Formation and problems

Main Satellite Mist

Smaller Satellites Main Drop

This whole process happens in less than 80 microseconds.

Drop ReliabilityXaar y Seiko printheads1 level 3 levels 7 levels2mm4mm

5mm

Printing modesBinary:Recomended in designs with a lot of ink

Grey ScaleGrey Scale 2Recomended in designs with medium colour and diferent mesh areas

Grey Scale 4Recomended in designs using low quantity of ink, and diferent mesh areas

Printing modes

Printing modesBinaryXaar Cretaprint Xaar Projecta Seiko GS Seiko Bin Bin 1 Bin 2 Bin 3 Bin 4 Bin GS3 GS4 Bin Bin GS2 GS3 GS3 GS4

Grey ScaleGS4 GS5 GS5 GS6 GS6 GS7 GS7 GS8

Xaar Printhead X1001Ink OutInk In

Ink Flow

XaarRecirculation and printing problemsNormal recirculation speedInk Nozzles

High speedAir bubble

Meniscus defor med by the high recirculation speedAir

Meniscus

Perfect result

Lines problems

XaarRecirculation and printing problemsNormal recirculation speedInk

Slow speed

Nozzles Drop

Meniscus

Due to low speed

Perfect result

Lines problems

Printing problemsNormal conditionInk Nozzles Inverted meniscum

Seiko

Drop problems Air problemsAir

Air

Good printing

White lines problems

White lines problems

How often we must stop and clean the printheads?Cleaning frequency depends of the design produced, working conditions, inks and the kind of printheads.NormalDifficult Kerajet Binary Cleaning time : aprox

41 0.25 2 minutes

hourshour hours

Ink composition affects the working life of the printheads?Yes, in the following order:

M2 produced >Solid concentration in ink > Chemical structure of the pigment

How long is the inks shelf life ?

Colorobbia guarantees the inks for 6 months since production date if the inks are correctly stored. Store preferably in a fresh, dry and dust free environment.

Are there any problems sending Cinks by Plane/Boat/Truck?No problem at all. CINKS are not A.D.R: they can be sent by air, with a clear logistical advantage.

It is necessary special equipment to handle the inks?Since Cinks are no Toxic, the only precaution needed is the use of the basic personal equipment protections: Glasses Plastic nitrilo gloves

Do inks need special handling before charging the machine?We do suggest to shake well the bottle, to remove possible sedimentation during the stocking time. Then wait a few minutes before charging the machine to avoid printing problems.

There are any special products useful before /after the digital printing?Several products are under testing , to help to : Fix the inks in the unfired tile. Reduce superficial tension. Protect the inks from evaporation. Fast ink drying, in case of aplication of a big amount of ink

Gestion of colourAdditive colours Sustractive colours

Red + Green + Blue = WhiteMonitor,Scanner,Photocamera, Projector....

Cyan + Magenta + Yellow = BlackOffset printing , Ink printing...

Why we need the profiles?

A profile is an identity card of the device with all the information. It describes behavior of the colours on our interface or device. Ex: We need profiles to produce the real colour of a photograph to a Monitor. If the monitor is not profiled the result could be far from reality.

Real image

Image with a non calibrated monitorRed color changes

Ceramic profile

Profiles

Colour spaceAdobe RGB Apple RGB R255,G85,B29 R255,G85,B29

The same numbers RGB gives diferent results, depending of the colour space that we use.

Input and Output Device Input Device: The profile translatethe Lab values to RGB values RGB 80,23,67 Lab 23,60,-31 Lab 20,37,-11It deppends of the color space

Output Device: The profile translate the CMYK colour to Lab values .

Colorimetric conversion between a Input and Output device .Input DeviceL A1 18 A2 19 L A 11 22 A B 2 5 B R 43 51 R G 29 26 G B 31 27 B

Output DeviceCA1 63 A2 52 C

M78 80 M

Y68 7 Y

K26 76 K

L15 19 L

A10 22 A

B2 5 B

How is the ceramic Gamut?RGB

Ceramic CBrBeK

How we represent the colours that are out of Gamut?There are Four ways of Rendering intents:Perceptual. Saturation. Relative Colorimetric. Absolute Colorimetric.

Perceptual

All the colou