Cloning- Pros & Cons

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<p>Cloning the Pros and Cons and the stage in IndiaWhen Dolly, the first cloned sheep became news, cloning interested the masses. Not only did researchers delve deeper into the subject but even the common people sought great interest in knowing all about how cloning had been done. There was a sudden curiosity that rose in society about how cloning could benefit the common man. People were eager to know all about cloning and questions prevail till date. Ever since cloning became a possibility, its pros and cons have been fervently debated over on moral, ethical and technical grounds.Cloningin biology is the process of similar producing populations of genetically identical individuals that occurs in nature when organisms such as bacteria, insects or plants reproduce asexually. Cloning in biotechnology refers to processes used to create copies of DNA fragments (molecular cloning), cells (cell cloning), or organisms. The term also refers to the production of multiple copies of a product such as digital media or software. The termcloneis derived from the Greek word for trunk, branch, referring to the process whereby a new plant can be created from a twig.Pros of CloningIf the vital organs of the human body can be cloned, they can serve as backup systems for human beings. Cloning body parts can serve as a lifesaver. When a body organ such as a kidney or heart fails to function, it may be possible to replace it with the cloned body organ.Cloning could help reproduce plants that are more disease-resistant. Reproducing superior plants, especially those with nutritional superiority, could help address world hunger issues. Cloned plants also are more predictable, which could help save millions of dollars in farming costs, and plants near extinction could be saved through the right cloning programs.Cloning in human beings can prove to be a solution to infertility. Cloning has the potential of serving as an option for producing children. Cloning may make it possible to reproduce a certain trait in human beings. We will be able to produce people with certain qualities, human beings with particular desirable traits, thus making human beings a man-made being.Cloning technologies can prove helpful for the researchers in genetics. They might be able to understand the composition of genes and the effects of genetic constituents on human traits, in a better manner. They will be able to alter genetic constituents in cloned human beings, thus simplifying their analysis of genes. Cloning may also help us combat a wide range of genetic diseases.Cloning can make it possible for us to obtain customized organisms and harness them for health benefits of society. Cloning can serve as the best means to replicate animals that can be used for research purposes.Cloning can enable the genetic alteration of plants and animals. If positive changes can be brought about in living beings with the help of cloning, it will indeed be a boon to mankind.Cons of CloningCloning created identical genes. It is a process of replicating a genetic constitution, thus hampering the diversity in genes. While lessening the diversity in genes, we weaken our ability of adaptation. Cloning is also detrimental to the beauty that lies in diversity.While cloning allows man to tamper with genetics in human beings, it also makes deliberate reproduction of undesirable traits, a probability. Cloning of body organs might invite malpractices in society.In cloning human organs and using them for transplant, or in cloning human beings themselves, technical and economic barriers will have to be considered. Will cloned organs be cost-effective? Will cloning techniques really reach the common man?Moreover, cloning will put human and animal rights at stake. Will cloning fit into our ethical and moral principles? Cloning will leave man just another man-made being. Wont it devalue mankind? Wont it undermine the value of human life?Cloning in IndiaFeb 13 2009In a landmark achievement for India, the scientists at Karnal-based Indias National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) successfully cloned the worlds first ever buffalo calf.The scientists at NDRI are said to have used a technique superior than that used in cloning the famous sheep- Dolly.The buffalo calf was born on Feb 6 2009 at NDRI campus.However, this jubilation was cut short, as the buffalo calf died five days later due to pneumonia. It is said that the infection was caused due to complications at the time of delivery and the cloning technique in itself was not faulty.The cloning of the buffalo calf at NDRI was conducted under the expertise of a team of six scientists, SK Singla, RS Manik, MS Chauhan, P Palta, RA Shah, and A George. Though the unnamed calf died just after five days, the scientists involved in the cloning are hopeful that the new technique implied in the process would lead to a new era in animal science for faster multiplication of superior germplasm.This breakthrough is expected to solve scarcity of milk production in the coming times.Another advantage of this technique lies in the fact that it is less demanding in terms of equipment, time and skill.At the same time, this would enable to produce calves of desired sex.As India boasts of worlds best quality buffaloes, the new enhanced technique used by the Indian Scientists may make it possible to clone and multiply a number of calves from a single embryo taken from a buffalo of highest quality.June 2009Following the death of their first cloned buffalo, the scientists in the Indian state of Haryana cloned a buffalo using foetal tissue. The female calf named Garima weighed 43 kilograms (95 pounds) and was born at the National Dairy Research Institute in the city of Karnal in northern India. Scientists cloned Garima using tissue from a foetus as part of a hand-guided cloning technique which allows the sex of the calf to be chosen. Scientists said India has the largest population of buffaloes in the world and that cloning would increase the percentage of elite animals in the species.July 2009SrinagarThe worlds first cloned camel produced in the desert of Dubai made news in April this year.Dr Nisar Ahmad Wani, a senior reproductive biologist at Dubais Camel Reproduction Centre who had worked as assistant professor in Sher-i-Kashmir University of Agricultural Technology, toiled for six long years to achieve this.Injaz or achievement in Arabic, a humped female camel, is the 12th domestic species to be cloned. She was produced by injecting the cells harvested from the female camel ovary into a camel oocyte (female germ cell or reproductive cell) whose nucleus had been removed. The two were then subjected to a split-second electrical impulse and chemically activated to induce them to start dividing like a normal fertilised egg. The resulting embryo was cultured for seven days in laboratory before it was re-implanted into a surrogate camel.March 22 2010Despite their success with the cloned water buffalo, animal scientists at National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI), Karnal, are not enthused about cloning the endangered species of tigers to save them from becoming extinct.Cloning experiments and their success have kindled a hope that endangered and extinct species can be revived and tiger conservationists are looking forward to some breakthrough in tiger cloning.While the companies in the USA are working on isolating the best breeds of cattle and poultry for cloning to enable the farmers raise the quality of their livestock, scientists at NDRI assert that each species of animal has different characteristics and one cloning method cannot be said to suit all.However, the pertinent question defying an unambiguous answer is that whether cloning could come to the rescue of Bengal tigers. A team of scientists headed by SK Singla associated with cloning of buffalo by hand-guided method warns that it is more likely possible with large mammals whose fertility characteristics are known.Further, any tiger-cloning project would entail enormous logistics to locate sufficient donor eggs and parent cells and there was also an element of the unknown if the captive-bred tigers would survive when released into the wild.Tiger conservationists also point out that the gene pool of wild tigers was already tiny and cloning them will not diversify the gene pool and the best course is to preserve the tigers habitat and hope the population recovers naturally.Some characteristics of cloning animals are given below: Cloning is more likely possible with large mammals whose fertility characteristics are known There is a problem of harvesting eggs as tigers produce only a few eggs at a time The project will entail enormous logistics to locate sufficient donor eggs and parent cells10/6/2010In Chandigarh this year 2010, it is said that two more water buffalo clones will be borne by the end of this year.Human cloningHuman cloning is the creation of a genetically identical copy of an existing or previously existing human. The term is generally used to refer toartificialhuman cloning; human clones in the form of identical twins are commonplace, with their cloning occurring during the natural process of reproduction. There are two commonly discussed types of human cloning: therapeutic cloning and reproductive cloning. Therapeutic cloning involves cloning adult cells for use in medicine and is an active area of research. Reproductive cloning would involve making cloned humans. A third type of cloning called replacement cloning is a theoretical possibility, and would be a combination of therapeutic and reproductive cloning. Replacement cloning would entail the replacement of an extensively damaged, failed, or failing body through cloning followed by whole or partial brain transplant.The various forms of human cloning are controversial. There have been numerous demands for all progress in the human cloning field to be halted. Most scientific, governmental and religious organizations oppose reproductive cloning. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and other scientific organizations have made public statements suggesting that human reproductive cloning be banned until safety issues are resolved. Serious ethical concerns have been raised by the future possibility of harvesting organs from clones. Some people have considered the idea of growing organs separately from a human organism in doing this, a new organ supply could be established without the moral implications of harvesting them from humans. Research is also being done on the idea of growing organs that are biologically acceptable to the human body inside of other organisms, such as pigs or cows, then transplanting them to humans, a form of xenotransplantation.The first human hybrid human clone was created in November 1998, by American Cell Technologies. It was created from a mans leg cell, and a cows egg whose DNA was removed. It was destroyed after 12 days. Since a normal embryo implants at 14 days, Dr Robert Lanza, ACTs director of tissue engineering, told the Daily Mail newspaper that the embryo could not be seen as a person before 14 days. While making an embryo, which may have resulted in a complete human had it been allowed to come to term, according to ACT: [ACT's] aim was therapeutic cloning not reproductive cloningOn January, 2008, Wood and Andrew French, Stemagens chief scientific officer in California, announced that they successfully created the first 5 mature human embryos using DNA from adult skin cells, aiming to provide a source of viable embryonic stem cells. Dr. Samuel Wood and a colleague donated skin cells, and DNA from those cells was transferred to human eggs. It is not clear if the embryos produced would have been capable of further development, but Dr. Wood stated that if that were possible, using the technology for reproductive cloning would be both unethical and illegal. The 5 cloned embryos, created in Stemagen Corporation lab, in La 0Jolla, were destroyed.Cloning in Chennai, Tamil NaduMaking steady progress in stem cell research and its clinical applications, Tamil Nadu Veterinary and Animal Sciences University (TANUVAS) is in a position to venture into the realm of cloning.Talking to reporters on the sidelines of an international seminar on Frontiers of stem cell and biotechnology in human and veterinary medicine, TANUVAS Vice-Chancellor P. Thangaraju said the varsity was conducting trials in embryo transfer in cattle and culturing of stem cells collected from ovaries for treatment of spinal cord, joints, nerves and tendons in animals.After successfully using autologous (patient derived) stem cell therapy for the management of a paraplegic dogs spinal cord injury, the varsity plans to set up an umbilical cord cell bank for animals, especially dogs and horses. Stem cell therapy could come in handy in treating the injured tendons of race horses, which could cost Rs 4 to 5 lakh each. Virginia Tech, a partner institution, was also working on stem cell therapy for tendon injuries, he said.On cloning, Mr. Thangaraju said, We have standardised techniques for cloning rabbits. Now, we are working on larger animals. Unwilling to set a deadline, he said: I am not in a position to say whether it (cloning) is in its initial or final stage. There are impediments.Meanwhile, TANUVAS sources said the varsity has not taken up cloning till now as it involved ethical issues and needed the approval of animal ethics and genetic engineering committees. At present, TANUVAS was focussing on embryo transfer and stem cell therapy which have greater application in clinical applications, the sources said.Another buffalo calf cloned 23.08.2010A cloned buffalo calf was born at the Karnal-based National Dairy Research Institute (NDRI) on 22.08.2010, where two calves were cloned a year ago, the Indian Council of Agriculture Research (ICAR) announced here on 23.08.2010.The buffalo calf, named Garima-II, was born through the new and advanced hand-guided cloning technique. It weighs 32 kg and is apparently normal and healthy. This cloned buffalo calf is different from the earlier clone calf because, in this case, the used donor cell was an embryonic cell, said NDRI Director A.K. Srivastava in a press statement.Faster multiplicationAccording to him, the technology could go a long way in facilitating faster multiplication of superior milch buffaloes in the country. There is an acute shortage of good bulls in the country. The technology of cloning will decrease the gap between supply and demand by breeding the bulls in the shortest possible time, he said.Dr. Srivastava said that although the worlds largest population of buffaloes was in India, and it contributed about 55 per cent to the total milk production in the country, the percentage of elite buffaloes was low.Dr. Srivastava and his team of scientists, including M.S. Chauhan, S.K. Singla, R.S. Manik, Shiv Prasad and Aman George, feel that embryonic stem cells have a better cloning abili...</p>