climate smart landscapes

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Climate Smart Landscapes. Tony Simons (ICRAF) CTA Briefing, Brussels, Sept 2012. Climate Smart Landscapes. What is a Landscape? Climate Smart (Wins and Losses) The Landscape Approach. 1. What is a Landscape?. Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including: - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Climate Smart LandscapesTony Simons (ICRAF) CTA Briefing, Brussels, Sept 2012

  • What is a Landscape?

    Climate Smart (Wins and Losses)

    The Landscape ApproachClimate Smart Landscapes

  • Landscape comprises the visible features of an area of land, including:

    physical elements of landforms such as mountains, water bodies, vegetationhuman elements including different forms of land use, buildings and structures, and transitory elements such as weather conditions.

    (from Wikipedia, 2012)1. What is a Landscape? "landscapes are not only what lies before our eyes but what lies within our heads. (Meinig)

  • Global Land Area

  • Global Land Area - proportional

  • AgricultureForestryEnvironmentWhat is best way to achieve CSA??

    Productivity/IncomeSequestration/MitigationReduced emissionsResilience/AdaptationCSAREDD+PES

  • 2. Climate Smart (Wins, Losses)

    Climate Smart Agriculture seeks to:

    Increase productivity/income (P&I) Increase Carbon sequestration (Seq) Reduce agriculture GHG emissions (REm) Strengthen farmers resilience/adaptation (Adp) win-win-win-win? or tradeoffs?

  • WinLoseFour WinsP&I/Seq/REm/AdpThree WinsP&I/Seq/REmAdpP&I/Seq/AdpREmP&I/REm/AdpSeqSeq/REm/AdpP&ITwo winsP&I/SeqREm/AdpP&I/REmSeq/AdpP&I/AdpSeq/REmSeq/REmP&I/AdpSeq/AdpP&I/REmREm/AdpP&I/SeqOne winP&ISeq/REm/AdpSeqP&I/REm/AdpREmP&I/Seq/AdpAdpP&I/Seq/REmNo winsP&I/Seq/REm/Adp

  • Tradeoffs between water & land productivity in drylands

  • Information and Knowledge Gaps/NeedsConceptual framework Data sourcesModelling M&E systemsTrade-off analyses (method and units)Indicators, Metrics and IndicesDecision processes, choices, perspectives

  • 3. The Landscape Approach

  • 3. The Landscape Approach (cont.)Much mentioned at Rio +20, why?Is it new? Or a recycled existing approach?Is it exclusive?Championed by some with almost religious zealWill it apply in all locations? and all sectors?Is it associated with an institution?Does it have a formal definition?

  • 3. The Landscape Approach (cont.)1. Make sense and operate across nested and interacting social and political scales (village, district, country)

    2. Make sense and operate across nested and overlapping biophysical scales (e.g. farm, watershed, basin)

    3. Involve multiple and defined sectors and stakeholders

    4. Seek synergies and reduce tradeoffsPeople-Place-PurposeThe right practice for the right people in the right place for the right reasonFour underlying Principles:

  • Soil maps generally staticCoarse resolutionDont reflect functional properties of the soilEthiopia soil map

  • But what does it mean? and how can we use it?

  • Soil Carbon (30m x 30m)Can guide better decisions

  • Soil Erosion prevalence

  • Landscape learnings from Challenges of REDDMarket alone wont solve deforestation problemCarbon only part of picture (water, habitat, biodiversity, services) MRV needs to be independent of governmentHandling cross-sectoral/ministerial issuesControversy over rights to pollute, displacement of emissionsOpportunism of carbon cowboysDefinition and inclusion problems of tree, forestAsynchronous forest laws, agrarian reform, land tenureLand-use/land-cover conundrumBundling protection forest, production forest, conversion forest, (non-forest)REDD is only partial accountingLow capacity/compliance of fpic, indigenous rights, social safeguardsBaselines versus reference levelsEmissions embedded in tradeStock:emission rate ratios are lowering (time pressure to act)All actors believe most finance should go to them

  • easternwesternFort Tenan

  • Increasing Productivity

    Reducing Environmental FootprintFAOMICCA Project

  • Adjudicated under the Land Adjudication Act CAP 284 1968, intensive smallholder cultivation with clear freehold title Tenure effects on land productivity and investmentUn-adjudicated land: no firm legal titleNorton-Griffith, in preparation

  • Investment and returns to land

  • Human LandscapesLand units as non-interacting aggregatesEconomic or social synergies not accommodatedSocial processes across land uses ignored or aggregated(Ghazoul, ISPC Meeting, 2011)

  • and yes, there are some systems that can give the four winsThe Good News

  • climate smart landscapesunsustainable agriculture

    Trade Off between Water and Land Productivity, through Deficit Irrigation:

    In dry areas, we should consider the Tradeoffs between water & land productivities - deficit irrigation. In dry areas water productivity is more important that land productivity.Aebe, more investments in tree crops, woodlots and hedgerows on securely tenured land compared with untenured land.