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Climate change adaptation days, First Edition, 01-02 April 2014, Ouahigouya , Burkina Faso. Climate-smart agriculture : Action for reduced vulnerability of Agriculture and Food Systems to Climate Change. Dr Robert Zougmoré Regional Program Leader West Africa. Outline. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  • Socio economic overview of West AfricaVegetation and Land use

    Under-five mortality is between 100 and 200/1000.

    The majority of the countries have a life expectancy of between 50 and 60 years. Population in 2010 was about 290 million. Agricultural sector employs 60 % of the active labor force contributing 35 % of GDP.

    In 2008, per capita GDP ranged from US$128 in Guinea-Bissau to more than US$1,500 in Cape Verde, with all other countries having less than US$ 500An average of about 7080 percent of the population lives on less than US$2 per day

  • Irrigable Land 8.9 million haArable Land 236 million ha10.3 % exploited in West Africa10 % developedSignificant pastoral and fisheries resources However, West African economies are especially vulnerable to climate change as a result of their heavy dependence on rainfed agriculture.

    Natural Resource Endowment in WA

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    Major challengesincrease agricultural production among resource-poor farmers without exacerbating environmental problemsand simultaneously coping with climate change (adaptation).

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    To 2090, taking 18 climate models

    Four degree riseThornton et al. (2010) Proc. National Academy Science>20% loss5-20% lossNo change5-20% gain>20% gain

    Length of growing period (%) Length of growing season is likely to decline..

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    Scenarios for the future

  • Analytical frameworkIntegrates modeling components (macro to micro, to model range of processes, from those driven by economics to those that are essentially biological in nature (IMPACT, HYDROLOGY, DSSAT, GCMs)Used hundred of scenario maps, models, figures, and their detailed analysisTo generate plausible future scenarios that combine economic and biophysical characteristics to explore the possible consequences for agriculture, food security, and resources management to 2050National contributors from 11 countries reviewed the scenario results for their countries and proposed a variety of policies to counter the effects of climate change on agriculture and food security.

  • Population and incomeA significant increase in the population of all countries except Cape Verde pessimistic: population of all countries will more than double except Cape Verde Income per capita in the optimistic scenario could range from US$ 1,594 for Liberia to US$ 6,265 for Cote dIvoire. Income per capita does not improve significantly in the pessimistic scenario.

  • RainfallChange in average annual precipitation, 20002050, CSIRO, A1B (mm) MIROC, A1B (mm)Despite variations among models, there is a clear indication of: changes in precipitation with either a reduction in the heavy-rainfall areas, particularly along the coast, or an increase in areas of the Sahel hitherto devoid of much rain.Southern parts of Ghana, Togo, Benin and Nigeria will be dryer

  • Changes in yields (percent), 20102050, from the DSSAT crop model: CSIRO A1B MIROC A1BMaizeSorghumGroundnut

  • Regional/landscape implicationsFarmers and pastoralists may have to contend with new farming cultures including land tenure and changing food habits

    Drought and floods could affect productivity and even threaten the existence of plants and animals along the coast and the Sahel, respectively

    Spread of malaria and trypanosomiases in hitherto dry areas in the Sahel Heavy rains could pose a serious challenge to unpaved feeder roads vital for transport of inputs to farming areas and produce to marketCoastal West AfricaSahelian region

  • How can smallholder farmers achieve food security under a changing climate?

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    We need climate-smart agriculture actions at all levels

  • Agriculture must become climate-smartsustainably increases productivityIncreases resilience (adaptation) reduces greenhouse gases where possibleand enhances the achievement of national food security and development goals

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    Farm and community:climate-smartpractices, institutionsClimate-smart agriculture happens at multiple levels

  • Approach where CCAFS in partnership with rural communities and other stakeholders (NARES, NGOs, local authorities), tests & validates in an integrated manner, several agricultural interventions Aims to boost farmers ability to adapt to climate change, manage risks and build resilience. At the same time, the hope is to improve livelihoods and incomes and, where possible, reduce greenhouse gas emissions to ensure solutions are sustainableConcept of climate-smart villages

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    Climate-smart villagesLearning sitesMultiple partnersCapacity buildingScaling upPolicyPrivate sectorMainstream successes via major initiativesHow it works?

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    PartnershipNARSExtensionNGOsUniversitiesDevelopt. partnersPrivate sectorCBOs, Local leadersClimate-smart villages in Ghana (Doggoh), BF (Tibtenga), Senegal (Kaffrine), Mali (Cinzana), Niger (Kampa zarma)Concrete action at community level:increase agricultural productivity and farmers income; strengthen the resilience of ecosystems and livelihoods to climate change; and reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

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    2013Examples of Successful CSA

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    NIGERBringing back the Sahels underground forest1980s loss of trees led to severe soil infertility, crop failure, famine.

    Land restored through farmer-managed natural regeneration (FMNR).

    FMNR encourages farmers to regrow indigenous trees.

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    NIGERSuccess at scale

    5 million ha of land restored, over 200 million trees re-established.

    FMNR spreading across southern Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Senegal.

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    NIGERBenefits for food production, adaptation and mitigationFood production:additional half a million tonnes of grain per year. improved food security of 2.5 million people.yields of millet from 150 kg/ha to 500 kg/ha.Adaptation :improved structure and fertility of the soil.water more accessible. Mitigation:sequestration of carbon in soil, tree roots and wood.

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    WEST AFRICA SAHELWater harvesting boosts yields in the Sahel

    Sahel Droughts common and farming difficult with sparse rainfall.

    Changes in land management stone bunds and zai pits.

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    WEST AFRICA SAHELSuccess at scale Contour bunds established on 200,000 to 300,000 ha.

    Yields double those on unimproved land.

    Tree cover and diversity increased.

    Groundwater levels rising.

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    WEST AFRICA SAHELBenefits for food production, adaptation and mitigationFood production:predicted that the improved land will produce enough to feed 500,000 to 750,000 people.increased diversity of food, health benefits.

    Adaptation:contour bunds able to cope with changing weather.

    Mitigation: land management prevents further worsening of soil quality.

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    Upfront costs often substantialBrazil: US$ 250 million over two yearsMorocco: over US$ 1 billion per annumVietnam: US$ 500 million in 2011Strong government support is crucialPolicy support, e.g. secure land and resource tenureStrategies for scaling-upInstitutional frameworksFundingCAADP e.g. Maputo commitments, African Regional Strategy on Disaster Risk Reduction UNFCC e.g. Green Climate Fund, Least Developed Countries Fund, Adaptation FundMulti-lateral e.g. IFAD Adaptation for Smallholder Agriculture Program, G8 Global Agriculture & Food Security ProgramSome private finance e.g. supply chain security, carbon markets, corporate social responsibility

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    www.ccafs.cgiar.org; [email protected]

    ***The second challenge for agriculture relates to climate change adaptation. And if there is a single graph to show this challenge then it is this one for SSA.

    Thornton from ILRI uses a four degree temperature rise scenario, which based on current commitments to reduce GHGs is a distinct possibility.

    By 2090 vast areas of Africa will have experienced >20% reduction in growing season length. And huge areas 5-20% reduction. Almost no areas have rises in growing season. This illustrates the magnitude of potential impacts on agriculture from climate change. *Excuse the complicated title.

    In a few words I have tried to capture how we approach research.

    We vision with our partners where we want to go; we then work backwards as to what we must do, with whom, when and how.

    And we work from farmers fields at the one extreme up to the global negotiations on climate at the other extreme.

    I will explain further. It is a new era for research.

    I am xxxxxxxxxx, from the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)*Excuse the complicated title.

    In a few words I have tried to capture how we approach research.

    We vision with our partners where we want to go; we then work backwards as to what we must do, with whom, when and how.

    And we work from farmers fields at the one extreme up to the global negotiations on climate at the other extreme.

    I will explain further. It is a new era for research.

    I am xxxxxxxxxx, from the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)*Excuse the complicated title.

    In a few words I have tried to capture how we approach research.

    We vision with our partners where we want to go; we then work backwards as to what we must do, with whom, when and how.

    And we work from farmers fields at the one extreme up to the global negotiations on climate at the other extreme.

    I will explain further. It is a new era for research.

    I am xxxxxxxxxx, from the CGIAR Program on Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (CCAFS)*The concept of climate-smart village is used to capture the desire to take integrated approaches to climate adaptation but not doing everything doing what is needed in a specific context to enhance adaptation.

    This shows some of the activities that may be conducted in a community.

    CSVs are learning sites, where multiple partners come together to innovate with communities, to build capacity to innovate

    Our eyes must be constantly on scaling up feeding lessons into policy processes, working with the private sector so they can stimulate uptake, or mainstreaming successes into the work of major initiatives or agencies. *Using results from the baseline studies, we conducted a participatory monitoring & evaluation planning of the PAR work with all listed partners: communities, local extention agents, researchers, local authorities, etc.

    Gender was taken into consideration in the planning

    Then we moved with the test of identified best options for climate change adaptation

    Using the M&E tools, we evaluate the results and iterativeley bring back the new packages for testing*goods and services provided by indigenous trees: timber, firewood, fodder, fibre, medicines, fruits, edible leaves and nuts, fodder, dyes and many environmental services.*The structure and fertility of the soil has improved = rain soaks into the soil more readily and water tables have risen in some places, making water more accessible and available to plants and people alike.

    Together, these changes have increased the resilience of farming systems to extreme weather events, diversifying sources of food and income and protecting land and water resources. * Stone bunds = effective way of reducing runoff. Capturing topsoil and allowing rainfall more time to soak into the soil.

    Zai pits = shallow bowls filled with compost or manure in which crops are planted. * * *