Cla revision ppt

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English Language AQA B revision powerpoint.

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<ul><li> 1. 1Child languageacquisitionTo what extent do childrenacquire language by activelyworking out its rules?</li></ul> <p> 2. 2What are rules?A rule is according to Wiktionary: a regulation, law, guideline something to keep order.How do we relate this to language? 3. 3Language rulesMorphologySemantics SyntaxRulesPragmatics 4. 4Some grammar rules-ed past tenseMorphology-ing progressiveaspect-s possessive -s plural-er/-estcomparative/superlative 5. 5I falled overMummy sawed meMorphology rules: examplesI drawingMe walkingWugsMansMousesHes bigger than meIm the oldestMummys shoesDollys pushchairMorphology 6. 6Syntax rulesEach stage hasits own set ofrulesPost-telegraphicTwo word Telegraphic 7. 7Two word stage Look at the combinations of words createdat the two word stage: I draw (subject + verb) My hat (possessor + possession) Drink gone (object + quality) Explore Roger Browns research intosemantic relations and the typical twoword combinations. 8. 8Questions and negation The two word stage is where questionsand negative constructions start to appearand there are rules for how these areformed too. Take the syntax of declarative sentences,for example. They are usually subject verb object (I ate the apple) or subject verb complement (I am five), but toform a question, syntax has to bechanged: Am I five? or Did I eat theapple?. 9. 9Telegraphic stage Children tend to follow adult syntax at thisstage, but miss out grammatical words. If theres a rule here, its that children optfor lexical words rather than grammaticalones they go for meaning overgrammar. Mummy work (Mummy is going to work). 10. 10Post-telegraphic stage The missing words (auxiliary verbs,determiners and prepositions) startto reappear, and clauses start to getlinked together. Children start to link clauses with co-ordinatingconjunctions to beginwith, moving on to subordinatingconjunctions later. 11. 11Semantics Semantic rules might be defined as the ways inwhich children tend to make distinctions inmeanings between different objects, or how theylearn to mean. Children apply three strategies: the whole objectassumption, type assumption and the basic levelassumption. The whole object assumption is that a new wordusually refers to a whole object, not part of it ora quality the object possesses. 12. 12Semantics The type assumption prevents children fromunderextending most new words. In otherwords, if they are told that the new thing theyhave seen is a dog, they dont assume that onlythat dog is a dog and every other dog isnt. The basic level assumption prevents the childfrom overextending meanings too far. So, oncea child has recognised what dog refers to, theyseem to understand that it also refers to thingswith similar properties (appearance, behaviour,size). 13. 13Pragmatics As well as the more language-based rulescovered here, children have to acquirepragmatics, which might be defined as anunderstanding of the unspoken rules ofcommunication: irony, turntaking,implicature etc. These can only be acquired throughexposure to others language, and are thehallmarks of a child moving from earlyspeech to more adult patterns. 14. 14Exceptions to rules And finally One of the big things children have tolearn is that there are exceptions to rules.Theyre pretty good at applying rulesregularly to verbs, nouns and adjectives,but need time and exposure to language(not correction, as such) to master theexceptions. Roger Browns U-shape helpsdemonstrate this. </p>