chapter 22 baroque art

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  • 1.Chapter 22: Baroque Art
    AP Art History
    Magister Ricard

2. 3. What is Baroque?
Art produced from the end of the 16th to early 18th centuries
Stresses emotional, rather than intellectual responses; likes drama
Grew out of the tug-of-war between Protestant Reformation (Northern Europe) and Counter Reformation (Italy)
Artists tried to persuade to the faithful through dramatic works
Used by absolute rulers (popes and kings) to overwhelm and awe
4. Culture of Baroque Era
Wealthy middle class continues to pursue strong patronage of arts
Buildings, painting, sculpture continue to be adapted
Still lifes and genre paintings (everyday life) emerge
Science begins to challenge religion, Earth is not center of the universe
Workshops begin to churn out copies of popular themes
Value on the original work is a modern notion
5. Baroque Art
Italy
6. Bernini
A child prodigy who the pope demanded an audience of
Deemed the Michelangelo of his generation
His David is hailed as the first Baroque sculpture it depicts a dramatic moment and involves the audience (many ducked when seeing the statue for the first time)
7. 8. Bernini and St. Peters
The faade was completed in 1626 by Carlo Maderno
Used both Renaissance (Michelangelos dome) and Baroque (Madernos faade) styles
Bernini is named architect of St. Peters
Oversees many projects for next 51 years
Baldachino was the first project directly under Michelangelos dome and the tomb of St. Peter
Rumored to have been heavily worked by Borromini
Four bronze spiral columns recall Temple of Solomon, are 95 high bronze stripped from the Pantheon
9. 10. Bernini and St. Peters
Bernini also was responsible for the courtyard extending in front of the basilica
From Bramantes original central plan design to the extensions made by Maderno, Bernini unified these artistic styles
Two curved porticoes extended like the motherly arms of the Church
11. 12. 13. 14. Borromini
A rival of Berninis, regarded himself as an architect (and not Bernini)
Regarded buildings as exercises of geometry
Unlike Brunelleschi and Alberti, who built flat symmetrical walls, used undulating walls to create motion
Faade used a mixture of concave and convex bays
Creates dramatic use of light and shadow
Oval-shaped dome uses different coffers which decrease as they reach the apex
15. 16. 17. 18. Caravaggio
Recast biblical scenes or themes in new light
Used naturalism but instead did not idealize the narratives
Accentuates the sinner or the lower classes in his works
Strong use of light with deep pockets of shadow - tenebrism
Strong personality, thrived in Roman underground scene necspenecmetu
19. 20. 21. 22. 23. Baroque Art
The Habsburg Lands
24. The Habsburgs
Charles V abdicates Holy Roman Empire throne in 1556
The Western portion (Spain, American colonies, Netherlands, Burgundy, Milan, Naples and Sicily) go to his son Phillip II
The Eastern portion (Germany and Austria) go to his brother Ferdinand
Even as Spains gold imports lessen from New World, and eventual bankruptcy in 1692, this is known as Golden Age of Spain
The artwork tends to support heavily the Catholic Church and the Habsburgs liked the use of strong dramatic effect and lighting
25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. Baroque Art
Flanders and the Netherlands
31. Peter Paul Rubens
(1577-1640) Born in Germany, trained in Antwerp and studied in Rome
Influenced by Michelangelo and Caravaggio
Became synonymous with Flemish Baroque
Combined portraiture and historical narrative for a cycle of 21 paintings dedicated to Marie deMedici
Unified the styles of northern and southern Europe
Upon his return to Antwerp, built a house with a large studio that allowed his workshop to crank out works
32. 33. 34. 35. The Golden Age of Dutch Art
The Dutch Republic was based on commerce and trade; merchant class held power, wealth
No royal court and officials and lacking Catholic church commissions, artists turned to merchant class for work
Portraiture rose in popularity as did works showing their possessions and land
Still lifes, landscapes, genre scenes and portraits
36. 37. Rembrandt
Based in Amsterdam (1606-1669), the financial center of Europe
Became cities most-renowned portrait artist
Was well-established in creating group portraiture (The Night Watch)
Held a range of interests, also was a master of etching and used drypoint technique later
38. 39. 40. 41. 42. Jan Vermeer
Not much is known about his life, but he is considered one of the Dutch masters
Typical paintings have light coming from source on left side, uses yellows and blues, subjects tended to be women
Believed to have used the camera obscura, an instrument that created an image through a hole set inside a dark box
43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. Baroque Art
France
49. The Rise of France
France really shifted the center of European art and culture away from Italy
Italy began to dominate art in the 1300s with the return to the classics
When Louis XIV took over in France in 1661, everything changed
He reigned for 54 years, established France as the leading superpower
From 1661-1789 French art took prominence
50. 51. 52. The Sun King
Louis XIV (1661-1715) defined his era
All life revolved around him, he envisioned himself as Apollo
Oversaw the construction of Versailles palace and gardens were unfortified
Style emphasized glory; lavish and luxurious
At 63, most famous portrait not just for the opulence of his position, but also the vanity of his legs!
53. 54. 55. 56. 57. Baroque Art
England