ch 3 migration. key issues 1.why do people migrate? 2.where are migrants distributed? 3.why do...
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Key IssuesWhy do people Migrate?Where are migrants distributed?Why do migrants face obstacles? Why do people migrate within a country?
NO Comprehensive Theory of Geography ButRAVENSTEIN represents the basis for contemporary geographic migration studies11 migration laws based on:REASONS whyDISTANCE they typically travelCHARACTERISTICS
Key Issue #1: Why People Migrate?Reasons for migrating
Push factors (induces people to move into a new location) Pull factors (induces people to move away from an old location)Economic- most people migrate for this reason Cultural- 2 main reasons-slavery & pol. instabilityEnvironmental- toward physically attractive regions & from hazardous ones (+ mountains, seaside, warm)
Intervening obstacles- environmental or cultural features that hinders migration (past: usually envrnmntl- oceans, mnts etc.)
Refugees: Sources & DestinationsMajor source and destination areas of both international and internal refugees.
Hurricane Katrina MigrantsA major natural disaster represents an environmental push factor for forced migration.
Scene from The Grapes of WrathThe Dust Bowl in the 1930s led to forced migration from the Great Plains to California & elsewhere.
Key Issue #2: Where are Migrants distributed?Migration PatternsGlobal migration patterns US has the most international IN migrants --LDC to MDC Asia, Latin America, & Africa have net OUT-migration N. America, Europe, and Oceania have net IN-migration
U.S. immigration patterns: US has a special role in the study of internl migration. 3rd most populous country inhabited overwhelmingly by direct descendants of immigrantsColonial immigration (English & Africans) 1607-1840; econ. PULL factors, persecution, involuntary19th-century immigration (European) 1840-1930; econ. PUSH factorsRecent immigration (Latin America) 1950- present; econ. PUSH factors & econ. PULL factor + countries in DTM stage 2 send their NIR
Impact of immigration on the U.S.
Legacy of European migration: in decline since 1940; changed world culture; diffusion of culture, seeds of conflict
Undocumented immigration: Positive & Negative social & economic impactDestination of immigrants within the U.S.: clustered in 4 states: CA, TX, NY, FL proximity matters (MX/Caribbean), job prospects
Global Migration PatternsThe major flows of migration are from less developed to more developed countries.
Net Migration (per population)Net migration per 1000 population. The U.S. has the largest number of immigrants, but other developed countries also have relatively large numbers.
Migration to U.S., by Region of Origin Most migrants to the U.S were from Europe until the 1960s. Since then, Latin America & Asia have become the main sources of immigrants.
New York Harbor and Ellis IslandEllis Island is connected to New Jersey by bridge. Liberty Island & the Statue of Liberty are south of Ellis Island.
Immigrants to the US
Migration from Asia to the U.S.The largest numbers of migrants from Asia come from India, China, the Philippines, and Vietnam.
Migration from Latin America to the U.S.Mexico has been the largest source of immigrants to the U.S., but immigrants have also come from numerous other Latin American nations.
Undocumented Immigrants in the USCalifornia, Texas, and Florida are the leading destinations for undocumented immigrants to the U.S.
U.S. - Mexico Borderat TijuanaThe U.S. side of the border is uninhabited and separated from Mexico by a fence
U.S. States as Immigrant DestinationsCalifornia is the destination of about 25% of all US immigrants; another 25% go to New York & New Jersey. Other important destinations include Florida, Texas, and Illinois.
Key Issue #3: Why do Migrants Face Obstacles?Immigration policies of host countriesU.S. Quota laws: Quota Act of 1921 & the Nationals Origins Act of 1924 ended unrestricted immigration into the US by est. QUOTAS (2% of existing # of immigrant in US could migrate each year) Not modified until 60s replace with Hemisphere quotas accompanied by preferences & doesnt apply to REFUGEES
Temporary migration for work: solution for economic needs of a country & the immigrant. Protections under labor laws, helps the origin country & destination country economically
Time-contract workers: recruited for fixed times
Economic migrants or refugees?: W. Europe, US & Canada distinguish. Refugees get special priority, Economic migrants often denied admittance. Cuba, Haiti & Vietnam are examples of place that fall under this dilemma
Key Issue #3: Why do Migrants Face Obstacles cont.dCultural problems living in other countries
U.S. attitudes toward immigrants- historically immigrants have ALWAYS been viewed with suspicion (less during westward movement period, worse for particular groups during war/conflict)
Attitudes to guest workers- reflective of economic need. generally negative, opposition to social programs for them, viewed as a threat to traditional culture/political systems.
Prominent Beliefs: if all immigrants were thrown out of the host country unemployment would drop; if all immigrants were cut off from public programs; taxes would drop. There is little scientific basis for either argument
Guest Workers in Europe Guest workers emigrate mainly from Eastern Europe and North Africa to work in the wealthier countries of Western Europe.
Emigration from China Various ethnic Chinese peoples have distinct patterns of migration to other Asian countries.
Migration of Vietnamese Boat People Many Vietnamese fled by sea as refugees after the war with the U.S. ended in 1975. Later boat people were often considered economic migrants.
Anti-Immigration Protest in SpainSpanish youths attacked Moroccan immigrants in El Ejido, Spain after an alleged murder.
Key Issue #4Migration within a CountryMigration between regions of a country- generally less disruptive than international migration
Migration between regions within the U.S most common when people were farmers. Today people move mostly for better jobs & non economic reasons. Westward movement = large scale migration in the past.
US has experienced a change in its CENTER OF POPULATION
early settlement of interior began post 1790, (large amount of land cheap or Free)
early 1800s = better transportation (canals, steam powered boats)
after 1830s westward expansion into California moved MANY more people west in general center region of US missed due to inhospitable climate/land (now the largest agricultural area in the US) & gold in CA
after 1880: population center shifted more slowly due to- slowing in westward migration; increase migration to E. coast from Europe; filling in of central areas previously bi passed due to innovations in technology (barbed wire, irrigation via well drilling, steel plow, completion of extensive RR systems)
1950-1980- population center began to move quickly again
1980-2000- population center began to move South
ethnic variation in migration occur as well (e.g. African Americans and Hispanics)
Center of Population in the U.S.The center of U.S. population has consistently moved westward, with the migration of people to the west. It has also begun to move southward with migration to the southern sunbelt.
Echo Canyon, northeastern UtahEcho Canyon was one of many obstacles (Physical) to 19th century wagon trains heading west.
Interregional Migration in the U.S.Average annual migrations between regions in the U.S. in 1995 and in 2003
U.S. Interregional Migration, 1995
U.S. Interregional Migration, 2003
Key Issue #4Migration within a Country contdMigration between regions in other countries or Inter-RegionalIncentives have been used to MOVE people in other countries
Russia- interregional migration was important in developing the USSR. Factories located near natural resources (e.g. Siberia) At 1st FORCED migration was used; later INCENTIVES were used including: higher wages, more paid holidays, early retirement.
Brazil- interregional migration was important to get people distributed into the sparsely inhabited tropical interior. Moved the capital, in 1960 to a newly built/modern city (Brasalia). Increased availability of jobs inspired by movement of the governments HQ serve as an economic pull factor.
Indonesia- since 69 the govt. has paid for the movement of 5 mill. ppl. from Java to less populated islands. Families get 2 hectares of land, materials to build, seeds & pesticides & a temporary food supply
Brasilia, BrazilBrasilia was created as Brazils new capital in 1960 & since then has attracted 1000s of migrants in search of jobs.
Europe-regions with NET MIGRATION are also the ones with the highest per capita incomes.
Italy: ppl migrate from the South to the North for job op.s. Where incomes are 2Xs as high.
The UK:, ppl migrate for job op.s from North to the economically growing South.
India: govt. limits migrants by requiring permits to move to certain areas. (to preserve ethnic identity)
Key Issue #4Migration within a Country contdMigration within one region or Intra-RegionalRural-urban m