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  • By, Nina TeicholzInvestigative science journalist. Author

    Presentation to

    Canadian Meat Council

  • This book should be read by every nutrition professional American Journal of Clinical Nutrition

    Impressive . . This book shook me. . . Teicholz has done a remarkable job The BMJ (British Medical Journal)

    A Best Book of 2014 The Wall Street Journal , Economist, Mother Jones, Times of London, BBC

  • A very confusing diet world out there!

  • From Berkeley, CA

    From Berkeleyto New York city

    A low-fat eating vegetarian for 20+ years

    I came to this without any preconceptions

    High school, 145 lbs

    I receive no industry support of any kindnot for my book or my subsequent research.

  • Current Diet Recommendations

    USDAPyramid

    MediterraneanDiet

  • VITAL SIGNS

    Risks: More Red Meat, More MortalityBy NICHOLAS BAKALARPublished: March 12, 2012

    The Bad News About Red Meat

  • How I got into this

  • We need to explain this:

  • What Im going to talk about today

    Whats gone wrong with official nutrition policy

    How it went wrong

    Why this is a story more about politics than science (Though well talk about the science, too)

    Bring you up to date on the latest science that you may not know about.

  • How it all started

    19001955

  • Saturated Fat/Cholesterol(in the diet)

    Elevated cholesterol in the blood Heart Attack

    The Diet Heart Hypothesis

  • Ancel Keys

  • 1961, The American Heart Association

    First advice anywhere in the world to limit saturated fats and cholesterol

    in order to prevent heart disease

  • Saturated fats (butter, lard, tallow)

    Why this idea made little sense given the data at the time

    Unsaturated vegetable oils

  • 1961:Ancel Keys was Mr. Cholesterol

    The most influential nutrition scientist of the 20th century

    But what was the evidence at the time??

  • The Seven Countries Study

  • Studying the islanders on Crete.who were long-lived

  • .during Lent

    The Greek Orthodox fast is a strict one and means abstaining from all foods of animal origin, including fish, cheese, eggs and butter

    Contemporary Observer

  • Trying to prove the diet-heart hypothesis with randomized controlled clinical trials

    (the gold standard)

    There were actually a large number of government-funded, randomized, controlled clinical trials..on hard endpoints

    On altogether some 75,655 men and women, in experiments

    lasting 1 to 12 years

    Most in in-patient settings; therefore highly controlled.

    RESULTS: No effect of saturated fats on cardiovascular mortality or total mortality

  • L.A. Veterans Trialrisk of cancer

    Dea

    ths

    from

    can

    cer

  • The Politics of Nutrition Science

  • Selection Bias: the Minnesota Coronary Survey

    Conclusion:

    For the entire study population, no differences between the treatment and control groups were observed for cardiovascular events, cardiovascular deaths, or total mortality."

  • US Dietary Goals

  • Isnt it all our fault?Americans dont follow the Dietary Guidelines faithfully enough

    Americans exercise too little

  • Major macronutrient shift in US1965-2011

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    1965 1971 2011

    Carbsupby30+%

    Fatdownby25%

    Saturatedfatdownby17%

    Source:Cohenet.al.,Nutrition,2015,volume31,Issue5,727-732

  • physical activity is generally insufficient by itself to bring about clinically significant weight lossa dietary intervention is usually needed

    U.S. Govt. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report, 2008

    sedentary behavior cannot be shown to lead to obesity. Report by the US Govt. Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee, 2015

    Conclusion: You cant exercise your way out of a bad diet

    On EXERCISE.

  • Maybe its not our fault after allMaybe its the fault of the Food Guide itself??What does the science now say?

  • #1:Saturated Fats Do Not Cause CVD Death

    Now>15meta-analysesandsystematicreviewslooking at:linkbetweensaturatedfatsandheartdisease.

    Takentogether,theseconcludethat:

    SaturatedfatsareNOTASSOCIATEDWITH heartdisease

    SaturatedfatshaveNOEFFECTONcardiovascularmortality

  • Thefollowing recommendationsdonotincludeathresholdorlimitforsaturatedfat

    August 2015

  • The surprising benefits of saturated fats

    1. The only food known to raise your HDL

    2. These are stable fats that do not oxidize when heated

    3. They are natural, in whole foods

  • #2:Eating Cholesterol does not Worsen Blood Cholesterol

  • Ancel KeysDiet-Heart Hypothesis

    SaturatedFat/Dietary

    cholesterol

    Raisedcholesterol

    (intheblood)HeartAttack

  • #3The low-fat diet doesnt work

    This diet has been tested in NIH-funded, randomized controlled clinical trials (gold standard), including the Womens Health Initiative and others.

    On >65,000 men and women (mainly women)

    Conclusions: The low-fat diet cannot be shown to be effective at fighting obesity, diabetes, heart disease, or any kind of cancer.

    The 2015 Dietary Guidelines committee wrote that the low-fat diet is associated with decreasing HDL and increasing triglycerides, which are both signs of an increasing risk of heart disease.

    That is why there is no longer any official low fat diet recommendation.

  • #4Fat Does Not Make you Fat

    SwedishGovernmentReport2014

  • #5:Fat Does Not Cause Cancer

    World Cancer Report 2007: No association between fat of any kind and cancer.

  • Path to Diabetes (consistent exposure to insulin over time)

  • What is the evidence supporting this theory?

    More than 74 Randomized controlled trials Virtually all of these studies are on Western populationsAt least 32 trials of low-carb diets have lasted six months or longer Three lasted 2 years (the gold standard) to see any adverse side effectsThese trials establish that low-carb diets are safeThese trials also establish that low-carb diets are effective for fighting obesity, diabetes, and heart disease (improves nearly all CVD risk factors)

  • I Ate Butter and my Pants Fell Off

  • Yet isnt red meat unhealthy?

    Red meat originally condemned for its saturated fat content.

    Yet link between saturated fat and heart disease unraveling

    Red meat now condemned based on weak epidemiological evidence

  • The available randomized controlled trials contradict

    the idea that red meat is bad for health.

    1.Polyp Prevention Trial: Test of a diet low in fat and animal foods for the prevention of cancer NIH funded, on 2,079 people for 4 years. Intervention group significantly decreased red meat and processed meats, replacing them instead with chicken

    Conclusion: researchers found no effect of this intervention, at the end of the trial or at the eight-year follow up, on the

    recurrence of colorectal cancer.

    2. Womens Health Initiative: Test of a diet low in fat and animal foods for the prevention of cancer NIH funded, on nearly 49,000 women for 8 years Women on the low-fat diet reduced red meat by 20% compared to controls, a statistically significant amount;

    Conclusion: Researchers found no effect on any of type of cancer. (Also no effect on heart disease, diabetes, or obesity.

    3. Meta-analysis of all RCTs: Conclusion:

    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11522565http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10770979http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJM200004203421601http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/16/9/1745.fullhttp://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16467233

  • Why is this science not reflected in our Dietary Guidelines?

    Although the DGAs have for decades recommended avoiding saturated fats and cholesterol to prevent heart disease, no DGA committee has ever directly reviewed the enormous body of rigorous (government-funded, randomized controlled trials) evidence, testing more than 25,000 people, on this hypothesis.

    The DGAC recommended reducing red and processed meats yet did not conduct an analysis of the scientific literature on this subject.

  • Take-home Messages

    There is no rigorous evidence to show that red meat is bad for health in any way;

    Meat has been erroneously condemned for its saturated fat content; it turns out that these fats do not cause heart disease.

    You can enjoy eating these delicious foods again.

    @bigfatsurprise on twitterNina Teicholz author page on Facebook

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