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Buddhism Buddhism and and Buddhist Art in India Buddhist Art in India

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Buddhist art in India


  • 1.Buddhism and Buddhist Art in India

2. Buddhism/Buddhist Art Life of the BuddhaSiddhartha Gautama Shakya ShakyamuniLumbiniKapilavastuMonastic orderAshoka 3. From Prince to Buddha His early life recorded in the Lalitavistara Conception Miraculous birth at Lumbini Garden On occasion his life parallels the life of Jesus Immaculate conception, e.g. Came out of his mother Mayadevis right flankBorn in 563 BCE Died in 483 BCE 4. Mayadevis Dream A white elephant enters Mayadevis wombSeen as a sign of divine interventionSeen as past Buddha descending from the Tushita HeavenA few days later, Mayadevi becomes pregnantCustomary of the time, Mayadevi goes to visit her parentsBut on her way, she goes into laborDelivers the baby in the Lumbini Garden 5. Siddhartha Father Suddhodana King of Kapilavastu Republic (oligarchy) Northern Gangetic regionnon-Vedic beltBrahmanic orthodoxy vs. Shakyan heterodoxy Discussion: Whats Michael Carrithers take on it? 6. Astrologers Prediction Visitation by astrologer Atisa Visitation by magi ? Atisas prediction Siddhartha will be a great king or a redeemer 7. Siddhartha Naming the child Siddhartha Gautama (Gotama)Family name Shakya (Clan name)ShakyamuniBuddha is a title given only after enlightenmentEarly years Suddhodana builds three palaces for his son Creates a utopia filled with only happiness & pleasure Absence of pain, suffering, old age, sickness, disease Siddhartha grows up in a deliberately controlled or programmed environment 8. Siddhartha Siddhartha is being groomed for taking over his fathers throneHe excels in everything Siddharthas nemesiscousin Devadutta plots to get him killed many times Archery, warfare Sports Reading and writingJudas?Siddhartha gets married With Yosodhara, a young and beautiful woman (a distant cousin) 9. Siddhartha Siddhartha is not happy His heart is emptyHe hasnt seen his own kingdom Hes been held within the confines of his palace as a prisoner He begs his father to see his kingdomHis father agrees, but sends his army in advance to stage a picture perfect sceneChhanahis companion 10. Teaching Middle Path Music teacher admonishing a studentThe middle path lies between the two oppositesIn Bodhgaya, he sat under a Bodhi tree to meditateHe sat there for 40 days and 40 nights until he attained enlightenment 11. Maras Attack (darkness, ignorance, evil, devil) On the last day Mara comes to tempt SiddharthaIs Mara the same as Satan who attempts to tempt Jesus?Mara uses everything in his arsenal to foil Siddharthas concentrationMaras five daughters 1) Desire, 2) Ego, 3) Pride, 4) Greed, and 5) Fear 12. SiddharthaFour sights An old man A sick man A corpse An ascetic Film 13. Buddhas teaching Four Noble Truths 1. 2. 3. 4.Life is Dukkha There is a cause of Dukkha There is a way to stop it By following the 8-fold pathThe Eight-fold Paths 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.Right intention Right speech Right action Right livelihood Right view Right effort Right mindfulness Right concentration 14. Buddhas teaching Dont take my word for it. Try it yourself.Be a light onto yourself.His famous aphorism, Look within, thou art the Buddha. All this served the lower the resistance that so often attends the arrival of a new and unfamiliar faith. (Prateka Buddha)Very practical man. He offered no promises of heaven, just release from the clutches of transmigration of life (samsara). 15. Buddha What does the word Buddha mean?The word 'Buddha' means 'awakened one'. He was, by his own insistence, a man, and he lived and died like everyone else.Any teacher, the Buddha said, can only point the way. The rest is up to you. Both the teaching and student exceed the teacher.As Morpheus in the movie Matrix said, I can only show you the door, you have to walk through it. 16. Man of the common people Buddha gave his sermons in Prakrit, or PaliA language spoken by the masses He avoided using Sanskrit, the language of the Brahmins, or the elite class of society Why? Discussion Jesus, too, taught in Aramaic, the language the general masses spoke. Was Buddha a reformer? He recognized the existence of an infinite number of past and future Buddhas In light of this, can we call him the founder of Buddhism? 17. Siddhartha's Departure Siddhartha leaves his palace at midnight Discussion-How Siddhartha views the world?Samsara (phenomenal world) is seen as a place of Dukkha (suffering)In search of freedom from SamsaraHe believes in Karma and transmigration of life (birth & rebirth)He was 29 when he left his palace 18. Understanding life Whats the turning point in his life? The Four Sights He could live with oldness and sickness But he couldnt accept death He thought death was cruel, b/c rebirth is inevitable after death Hindu concept of life as a cycle that revolves w/o stoppingThe only way to break the cycle is through Nirvana 19. Nelumbo nucifera 20. Pipal leafPipal tree, or the Bodhi tree (ficus religiosa) 21. Indus figurine, c. 2,000 BCEBuddhaRoman boy in a toga, c. 1st.c. CE 22. Siddharthas Birth Marks Born with 32 auspicious physical signs (lakshanas): 1. Urna (dot between eyebrows) 2. Ushanisha (cranial bump) 3. Srivatsa (diamond shaped birth mark in chest) 4. Long arms 5. Long ears 6. Long and webbed fingers 7. Three rings around the neck 8. Smooth skin 9. Long and perfectly arched eyebrows 10. Curly hair 11. Full lips 12. Eyelids in the shape of a lotus bud 13. No physical blemishes, and so on.. 23. Buddhas heads showing urna and ushanisa 24. Iconometry of Buddha 25. The wheel of Samsara (phenomenal world)Keeps moving w/o stopping Beings caught in Samsara arent free Nirvana is the answerSamsara is the field of: Desire Desire leads to attachment Since there is no end to desire, human beings are fettered to Samsara forever. The field of Nirvana lies outside of Samsara 26. The eight-spoked wheel (chakraDharmacakra). The eight spokes represent the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism. 27. Mahaparinirvana 28. Anionic Representation of the Buddha 29. Chorten 30. Stupa iconography 31. Early Buddhist sitesLomas Risi caveBhajaBharhutSanchiAmaravatiKarla caves in KarliMathuraAjanta caves 32. King Ashoka (Maurya)King Kaniska (Kushan)Middle PathTheravadaalso Hinayana(Sri Lankaformer Ceylon, Thailandformer Siam, Myanmarformer Burma)Mahayana (Nepal, Tibet, China, South East Asia and Japan) 33. Chaitya Vihara Yaksha Yakshi Chakra Mudra Abhaya Dhyana Varada Dharmachakra pravartana Vyakhyana Prana Mithuna (amorous couple, often in embrace or in sexual position) Mara Greco-Roman style (Gandhara) 34. Yakshi from Sanchi, 1st century CE 35. Highly polished columns 36. Bharhut stupa, 1st century B.C.E 37. BharhutMithuna couple, 1st century B.C.E. 38. Bharhut 39. Bharhut 40. A Greek Warrior 41. Karli 42. Mithuana couple from Karli cave, 2nd. century CE 43. Stupa with Buddhas relic Vaisali, Bihar 44. Jataka tale Kapi Jataka Bharhut stupa 1st BCE 45. Rock cut cave architecture, Lomas Risi, 3rd. BCE 46. Bhaja rock cut caves 47. Bhaja 48. Bhaja Caves are a group of 221 rock-cut caves dating back to 200 BCE located at Karli in Maharashtra. The location of Bhaja caves is not far from location of Karla Caves and these are stylistically similar to the Karla Caves. These caves are on a major trade route of the past that ran from the Arabian Sea eastward into the Deccan region, the division between North India and South India. The Bhaja caves share the same set of architectural designs as Karla caves. Visually most impressive monument is large shrine chaityagriha - with open, horseshoe-arched entrance part. The chaitrya has unique reliefs of Indian mythology. Other caves have a nave and aisle, with an apse containing a solid stupa and the aisle circling round the apse, providing the circumambulation path. Notable part of monument is a group of 14 stupas, five inside and nine outside an irregular excavation. One of the caves has some fine sculptures. Near the last cave is a waterfall which, during the monsoon season, has water that falls into a small pool at the bottom. 49. Bhaja cave, 2nd-1st century BCE 50. Bhaja cave, entrance to the inner rooms, 2 nd-1st century BCE 51. Indra riding an elephant, door relief From Bhaja cave, 2nd. Century BCE 52. Bhaja 53. Questions Which is the earliest rock cave? Lomas Risi Bhaja Karla None of the above Symbolism of the cave Provides not only shelter from the elements of nature, but also psychological safety, because..? Enclosed and deep recesses of the rock is similar to the mothers wombwarm, comfortable and safe. Womb stands for fertilitycreation of life.Interior of Bhaja Chaitya, 1st century BCE 54. Chaitya Hall, Bhaja cave, 1st century BCE 55. Bhaja, living quarters 56. Bhaja 57. Main facade of the Bhaja caves. Horse-shoe shaped faade. 58. Pillars Rafters Beams 59. Karla/Karle/Karli 60. Karle Chaitya Hall, a Buddhist cathedral with a nave and two aisles, 2 nd century CE 61. Karle cave 62. Buddha flanked by Bodhisattvas. 5th century CE 63. Karle 2nd cent. CE 64. Amarous couple (Mithuna) from Karle cave 65. The caves were historically associated with the Mahsghika sect of Buddhism, which had great popularity in this region of India, as well as wealthy patronage. The caves house a Buddhist monastery dating back to the 2nd century BCE. The caves at Karla are believed to be some of thousands of similar caves excavated in the Sahyadri Hills in the early 1st millennium CE. 66. Questions Which is the earliest rock-cut cave? a. Karle b. Bhaja c. Lomas Risi d. None of the above Symbolism of the cave Provides not only shelter from the elements of nature, but also psychological safety, because..? Enclosed and deep recesses of the rock is similar to the mothers wombwarm, comfortable and safe. Womb stands for fertilitycreation of life.Amaravati stupa, 2nd century CE 67. Parkham Yaksha 2nd century BCE Shakyamuni, presented to the shrine at Sarnath by Friar Bala, 2nd century CEThe Katra Buddha, Buddha seated on a lion throne, C. A.D. 130, Sikri sandstone, H. 27.75 in. 68. LACMA 69. Ajanta cave, 5th century CE 70. Buddha teaching, Ajanta 71. Gandhara=Gandharan Natural Realistic Greco-Roman Yogic body Idealized form 72. Buddha with two Bodhisattvas Buddha Triad Grey Schist Dated 182 CE Gandhara 73. Maitreya Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century CE 74. Gandhara Maitreya 75. Bodhisattva Maitreya, Gandhara 3nd century CE 76. The End