big era six: the great global convergence, 1400-1800 ce

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Big Era Six: Big Era Six: The Great Global The Great Global Convergence, Convergence, 1400-1800 CE 1400-1800 CE

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Page 1: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Big Era Six:Big Era Six:

The Great Global The Great Global Convergence,Convergence,

1400-1800 CE1400-1800 CE

Page 2: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Some key themes:Some key themes:

Old and New Worlds connectOld and New Worlds connect Columbian exchangeColumbian exchange Global economyGlobal economy European dominanceEuropean dominance Scientific Revolution & EnlightenmentScientific Revolution & Enlightenment

Page 3: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked Scholars translated books, taught others, and worked to gain knowledge. to gain knowledge.

Trade introduced people to new products, increasing Trade introduced people to new products, increasing the demand for luxuries.the demand for luxuries.

Money moved across countryside and continents in Money moved across countryside and continents in exchange for goods.exchange for goods.

Religious ideas were hotly debated, and missionaries Religious ideas were hotly debated, and missionaries spread religions to new lands.spread religions to new lands.

Ruling groups debated laws, and military struggles Ruling groups debated laws, and military struggles continued.continued.

Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Exchanges that began in Afroeurasia during Big Era Five continued to bring about change.Era Five continued to bring about change.

Page 4: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

European RenaissanceEuropean Renaissance

Arab, Persian, Greek, Indian, Chinese knowledgeArab, Persian, Greek, Indian, Chinese knowledge Crusades, Marco PoloCrusades, Marco Polo Art, literature, philosophy, scienceArt, literature, philosophy, science Paid by royal courts and the wealthy of Italy, Paid by royal courts and the wealthy of Italy,

then NW Europethen NW Europe Printing press (1468)Printing press (1468)

Page 5: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Sciences, philosophy, and the arts flowered in Sciences, philosophy, and the arts flowered in

Europe after 1400.Europe after 1400. ““Knowledge of the Ancients” entered Knowledge of the Ancients” entered

Europe during the 12Europe during the 12thth century. Its century. Its origins were Greek, Arabic, Chinese, origins were Greek, Arabic, Chinese, and Indian. It contained all natural and Indian. It contained all natural sciences, math, applied sciences, and sciences, math, applied sciences, and philosophy. philosophy.

Scholars Scholars flocked to flocked to Spain in the Spain in the 1100s to 1100s to translate translate books from books from Arabic to Arabic to Latin.Latin.

Scholars represente

d the heritage of ancient and

eastern knowledge

as a “giant.”

Europeans had some catching up to do.

Page 6: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Rise of European UniversitiesRise of European Universities

Demand for education Demand for education stimulated the growth of stimulated the growth of European universities in European universities in major towns.major towns.

These universities These universities introduced new introduced new knowledge into the knowledge into the curriculum.curriculum.

Page 7: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Islam and Christianity spread Islam and Christianity spread with empires, trade, and with empires, trade, and

migration.migration.

• Traders and Sufi orders Traders and Sufi orders spread Islam in Africa and Asia.spread Islam in Africa and Asia.• The Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire expanded into eastern Europe, expanded into eastern Europe, and Islam spread into the and Islam spread into the Balkans.Balkans.

• Catholic missionaries and Catholic missionaries and religious orders followed the religious orders followed the spread of empires in Asia, spread of empires in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.Africa, and the Americas.• Protestants colonized North Protestants colonized North America.America.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 8: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Religions MorphReligions Morph

Martin Luther - 1517Martin Luther - 1517 ProtestantismProtestantism Christianity spreads Christianity spreads

(Americas)(Americas) Islam spreads (Afroeurasia)Islam spreads (Afroeurasia) Buddhism spreads (Asia)Buddhism spreads (Asia) Local polytheistic religions Local polytheistic religions

dominatedominate SyncretismSyncretism increases increases

Page 9: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Religious institutions and ideas changed with the Religious institutions and ideas changed with the timestimes

International religious institutions developed, such as Sufi orders International religious institutions developed, such as Sufi orders in Islam, Catholic and Protestant missionary orders in in Islam, Catholic and Protestant missionary orders in Christianity, and Muslim reformist groups in Africa and Arabia. Christianity, and Muslim reformist groups in Africa and Arabia.

• Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Martin Luther challenged the Catholic Church’s authority and brought on the Church’s authority and brought on the Protestant Reformation after 1517. He Protestant Reformation after 1517. He translated the Bible into German. translated the Bible into German.

• Political leaders took sides, spawning Political leaders took sides, spawning European religious and national conflicts that European religious and national conflicts that lasted more than a century—to the mid-lasted more than a century—to the mid-1600s1600s..• Neo-Confucian Neo-Confucian

doctrines were doctrines were challenged by Wang challenged by Wang Yangming (1472-1529) Yangming (1472-1529) and his followers, and his followers, emphasizing rational emphasizing rational thought and thought and reflection.reflection.

Page 10: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Asian commercial and political voyages on Asian commercial and political voyages on the seas continued.the seas continued.

Ottoman naval vessels patrolled Ottoman naval vessels patrolled the Mediterranean, the Black the Mediterranean, the Black Sea, and the Indian Ocean.Sea, and the Indian Ocean.

Zheng He, Admiral Zheng He, Admiral of the Ming fleet, of the Ming fleet, made seven made seven voyages around the voyages around the Indian Ocean.Indian Ocean.

Indian Ocean trade Indian Ocean trade routes attracted routes attracted merchants as they had merchants as they had for centuries.for centuries.

Page 11: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Maritime technology changesMaritime technology changes

Better ships and better navigation Better ships and better navigation toolstools

Cannons onboard; firearms and Cannons onboard; firearms and iron toolsiron tools

Spanish, English, Dutch, French, Spanish, English, Dutch, French, Portuguese create huge empiresPortuguese create huge empires

Improved global communication, Improved global communication, travel, & tradetravel, & trade

American empires hugely American empires hugely disadvantageddisadvantaged

Page 12: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Technologies from Afroeurasia led to new European ship Technologies from Afroeurasia led to new European ship designs in the 15designs in the 15thth century. century.

Chinese Chinese sternpost sternpost

rudderrudder

Arab Arab lateen saillateen sailChinese Chinese

compasscompass

Muslim portolan Muslim portolan charts and mapscharts and maps

Page 13: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Columbus 1492

Vasco da Gama 1498

Magellan 1519

After 1415, European mariners made voyages across the seas toward east and west. By 1519, Spanish ships had circumnavigated the globe.

Others set out in search of wealth and adventure.

Page 14: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Population extremes:Population extremes:A Tale of Two HemispheresA Tale of Two Hemispheres

* Afroeurasia LEAPS: 375 million in * Afroeurasia LEAPS: 375 million in 1400, 950 million in 1800 1400, 950 million in 1800

* Americas CRASH: 50 million in 1500,* Americas CRASH: 50 million in 1500, 10 million In 160010 million In 1600

Page 15: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

The Great DyingThe Great Dying 1492-18501492-1850 Caribbean, Mexico, Central Caribbean, Mexico, Central

America, Andes, North America, Andes, North AmericaAmerica

Causes: disease, warfare, Causes: disease, warfare, slaveryslavery

Prompted imported slaves Prompted imported slaves from Africafrom Africa

Affected plants and animals Affected plants and animals too (less in S. America)too (less in S. America)

Page 16: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

African Slave TradeAfrican Slave Trade

1500-1800: estimated 1500-1800: estimated 11 million 11 million

42% to Caribbean, 38% to 42% to Caribbean, 38% to Brazil, 5% USBrazil, 5% US

Needed to replace dying Needed to replace dying Indians on plantations and Indians on plantations and minesmines

Destroyed African societiesDestroyed African societies ““Africanized” the Americas; Africanized” the Americas;

only 2 million Europeans only 2 million Europeans immigratedimmigrated

Page 17: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Rampant deforestationRampant deforestation

Mostly in Europe, Mostly in Europe, Americas, JapanAmericas, Japan

Fuel for mines, sugar Fuel for mines, sugar industry, shipsindustry, ships

Europe turned to coal; Europe turned to coal; Japan chose Japan chose reforestationreforestation

Page 18: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

miningboiling sugar

Deforestation intensified with growth in Deforestation intensified with growth in mining, shipbuilding, and plantation mining, shipbuilding, and plantation

agriculture.agriculture.Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 19: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Trade BoomsTrade Booms

Precious metals from Americas, Precious metals from Americas, Europeans benefit mostEuropeans benefit most

Access to, funds for, Asian & Access to, funds for, Asian & African goodsAfrican goods

Sugar, coffee, tobacco create Sugar, coffee, tobacco create wealth for Europe, misery for wealth for Europe, misery for people of Americas & Africapeople of Americas & Africa

Raw materials to Europe, Raw materials to Europe, finished products to Asia, finished products to Asia, Americas, AfricaAmericas, Africa

Page 20: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Columbian ExchangeColumbian Exchange

Page 21: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Global cash crops were Global cash crops were grown on large grown on large plantations with slave plantations with slave labor.labor.

Caribbean sugar plantation 1600s

Environmental changes resulted Environmental changes resulted from introducing new speciesfrom introducing new species

Livestock Livestock introduced to the introduced to the Americas changed Americas changed indigenous groups’ indigenous groups’ ways of life.ways of life.

Plains woman hunting buffalo 1800s

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 22: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Europeans brought African slaves Europeans brought African slaves across the South Atlantic to labor in across the South Atlantic to labor in

the colonies. The Atlantic slave the colonies. The Atlantic slave trade grew from about 1,000 per trade grew from about 1,000 per year in the early 1500s to nearly year in the early 1500s to nearly 80,000 per year at the end of the 80,000 per year at the end of the

1700s.1700s.

Population & Population & EnvironmentEnvironment

Page 23: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Rise of MilitarismRise of Militarism

Gunpowder!Gunpowder! New tactics, professional armiesNew tactics, professional armies Wars of Religion, Puritan Wars of Religion, Puritan

Revolution, 30 Years’ War, Revolution, 30 Years’ War, Seven Years’ War, American Seven Years’ War, American War of Independence, French War of Independence, French RevolutionRevolution

Britain emerges most powerfulBritain emerges most powerful Europe finally defeats Ottomans Europe finally defeats Ottomans

in 1800sin 1800s

Page 24: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Persian, Indian, Turkish, Persian, Indian, Turkish, Chinese, Japanese, and Chinese, Japanese, and European artisans experimented European artisans experimented with steel production for with steel production for weapons.weapons.

Land and maritime Land and maritime empires battled over empires battled over control of trade, control of trade, resources, and resources, and territory.territory.

Gunpowder empires in Gunpowder empires in Asia, Africa, and Asia, Africa, and

Europe honed skills in Europe honed skills in production of artillery production of artillery

and handguns.and handguns.States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 25: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

States and Empires in 1519 CEStates and Empires in 1519 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 26: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

States and Empires in 1600 CEStates and Empires in 1600 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 27: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

States and Empires in 1714 CEStates and Empires in 1714 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 28: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

States and Empires in 1804 CEStates and Empires in 1804 CE

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 29: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Monarchs claimed Monarchs claimed absolute power.absolute power.

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Louis XIVFrance

1643-1715

Catherine the Great Russia

1762-1796

Elizabeth IEngland

1558-1603

Philip IISpain

1556-1598

Xizong Ming China

1620-1627

Shah Abbas Persia

1587-1629

JahangirIndia

1605-1627

Süleyman Ottoman Empire

1520-1566

Page 30: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Printed books carried more and more Printed books carried more and more information.information.

Ideas & Ideas & InventionsInventions Page numbers, indexing,

and other citation systems became common.

Rich illustrations stimulated interest in literacy and learning.

Scientists shared detailed diagrams to replicate

experiments and instruments.

Sharp, accurate engraved

illustrations helped spread

innovative inventions rapidly.

Page 31: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Maps Maps reflected reflected discovery discovery

and and colonization.colonization.

……and helped and helped exchanges of exchanges of knowledge knowledge

among people among people in the world.in the world.

Ideas & Ideas & InventionsInventions

Page 32: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Maritime technologies Maritime technologies continued to improve after continued to improve after

1500.1500.

Mapping world wind patterns and Mapping world wind patterns and oceanic currents.oceanic currents.

Ships were fully rigged with sails Ships were fully rigged with sails for speed and handling. for speed and handling.

Ships grew larger & stronger (500 Ships grew larger & stronger (500 tons in 1450 to 2000 tons by 1590).tons in 1450 to 2000 tons by 1590).

The sextant greatly improved The sextant greatly improved navigation at sea.navigation at sea.

Cannons and ammunition Cannons and ammunition improved.improved.

Ideas & Ideas & InventionsInventions

Page 33: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Accountants learned double-entry Accountants learned double-entry bookkeeping with “Arabic” numerals.bookkeeping with “Arabic” numerals.

Commercial law protected private property Commercial law protected private property and investments.and investments.

More efficient bureaucracies and taxation More efficient bureaucracies and taxation increased the power of the government’s increased the power of the government’s purse.purse.

European monarchs issued charters to European monarchs issued charters to colonize overseas. colonize overseas.

Jurists experimented with civil and Jurists experimented with civil and constitutional law. constitutional law.

Banking and law served new Banking and law served new demands.demands.Trade & Trade &

ManufacturingManufacturing

Page 34: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Scientific RevolutionScientific Revolution

Based on questioning old ways of thinkingBased on questioning old ways of thinking Sources: Protestantism, new information from other Sources: Protestantism, new information from other

culturescultures Copernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Pascal, NewtonCopernicus, Galileo, Descartes, Pascal, Newton

* Scientific method* Scientific method

Page 35: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

The EnlightenmentThe Enlightenment

Social version of the Scientific Social version of the Scientific RevolutionRevolution

Questioning Man’s purpose, Questioning Man’s purpose, relationships with other Men relationships with other Men and with governmentand with government

Led to doubts about organized Led to doubts about organized religionsreligions

Page 36: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

Charles I, beheaded in 1649 Charles I 1625-1649

King George III1760-1820

Rebellion in American Colonies 1776

Challenges to absolutism came from new Challenges to absolutism came from new elites with ideas about human rights.elites with ideas about human rights.

French Revolution1789

Louis XVI 1775-1793

States & States & EmpiresEmpires

Page 37: Big Era Six: The Great Global Convergence, 1400-1800 CE

ReflectionsReflections

Europe was a world backwater pre-1500. What Europe was a world backwater pre-1500. What factors contributed to its growing importance factors contributed to its growing importance after 1500?after 1500?

Did the Old World or the New World benefit Did the Old World or the New World benefit more from the Columbian Exchange?more from the Columbian Exchange?

How did the discovery of huge quantities of How did the discovery of huge quantities of silver in the Americas affect Europe? China silver in the Americas affect Europe? China and India? Africa? The Americas?and India? Africa? The Americas?

Did the world, overall, benefit or suffer from Did the world, overall, benefit or suffer from Europe’s dominance in this era?Europe’s dominance in this era?