Basics of surveying

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<p>basics_of_surveying.mdi</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 1</p> <p>BASICS OF SURVEYING</p> <p>Robert BurtchSurveying Engineering DepartmentFerris State University</p> <p>DEFINITION The art and science of making such </p> <p>measurements as are necessary to determine the relative position of points above, on, or beneath the surface of the earth, or to establish such points in a specified position</p> <p>Surveyor needs understanding of rigorous mathematical to analyze and </p> <p>adjust scientific principles underlying and </p> <p>affecting measurements</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 2</p> <p>BRANCHES OF SURVEYING</p> <p> Geodetic Surveying Branch of surveying </p> <p>in which account is taken of figure and size of earth</p> <p> Plane Surveying Branch of surveying </p> <p>in which the surface of the earth is considered a plane surface</p> <p>PHASES OF SURVEYING</p> <p> Field Work Data procurement phase</p> <p>Office Work data are Analyzed Reduced to useful form by mathematical </p> <p>calculations Adjusted Frequently converted to graphical mode of </p> <p>expression</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 3</p> <p>KINDS OF SURVEYSProperty surveys Determine boundary lines, location of </p> <p>property corners, acquisition of data to prepare land subdivisions</p> <p>Route surveys Designing and constructing engineering </p> <p>projects associated with transportation and communications</p> <p> Industrial surveys Surveys in aircraft and other industries </p> <p>where accurate dimensional layouts necessary</p> <p>KINDS OF SURVEYS Topographic surveys Collect field data to prepare topographic </p> <p>mapsHydrographic surveys Map shorelines of water bodies, chart </p> <p>bottom areas of streams, lakes, harbors, etc., measure flow of rivers, assess other issues related to navigation and water resources</p> <p>Aerial surveys (photogrammetry) Use photographs mounted in specially </p> <p>designed planes</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 4</p> <p>KINDS OF SURVEYSMine surveys Determine position of underground works </p> <p>and surface mines, fix position and direction of tunnels and shafts, define surface boundaries</p> <p>Construction surveys Performed during building of structure or </p> <p>project to fix elevations, horizontal position, and dimensions</p> <p>Control surveys Provide basic horizontal and vertical </p> <p>position data for engineering mission</p> <p>KINDS OF SURVEYS Final (As Built) survey Tie in features that have just been </p> <p>constructed to provide final record of construction and to check that construction has proceeded according to design plan</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 5</p> <p>BASIC SURVEY MEASUREMENTS: DEFINITIONS</p> <p>Direction of gravity used as reference direction Vertical means direction of gravity Horizontal means direction </p> <p>perpendicular to gravity</p> <p>SURVEY GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCE Latitude ()</p> <p> Lines run east-west parallel to equator</p> <p> Max angle 90 South latitudes </p> <p>negative Longitude ()</p> <p> Lines run north south, converge at poles</p> <p> 0 - Greenwich Measured east and </p> <p>west - 180 max angle West longitude </p> <p>negative</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 6</p> <p>DEFINITIONS Oblate Spheroid</p> <p> Ellipsoid of Revolution</p> <p> Solid obtained by rotating an ellipse on its shorter axis</p> <p> Idealized figure of earth</p> <p>DEFINITIONS Level surface (geoid) Continuous surface that is at all points </p> <p>perpendicular to the direction of gravity Can be thought of as the surface of large </p> <p>body of water at complete rest (unaffected by tides, etc.)</p> <p>Elevation Vertical distance above or below a given </p> <p>reference level surfaceDifference in elevation Vertical distance between two level </p> <p>surfaces containing the two points</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 7</p> <p>DEFINITIONS Vertical line</p> <p> Line following direction of gravity</p> <p> Vertical line passing through several different points on surface of earth do not intersect at a common point</p> <p> Vertical lines not necessarily normal to surface of the earth</p> <p> Deflection of vertical Angle between </p> <p>perpendicular to geoidand ellipsoid</p> <p>DEFINITIONSHorizontal line Line perpendicular to vertical line at a point</p> <p>Horizontal plane Plane perpendicular to vertical line at point Only 1 horizontal plane through a given </p> <p>pointVertical plane Plane containing vertical line at the point Infinite number of vertical planes as a </p> <p>given point</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 8</p> <p>DIRECTION Azimuth- clockwise </p> <p>angle from north to line</p> <p> Bearing angle measured from north or south to east or west</p> <p>ACCURACY &amp; PRECISION</p> <p> Accuracy closeness between measurement and true value</p> <p> Precision closeness to one another of a set of repeated observations</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 9</p> <p>ERRORS</p> <p>No measurement free of error (except counting)</p> <p>Mistakes or blunders Not really errors because they are usually </p> <p>so gross in magnitude Most common reason carelessness Must be discovered and eliminated</p> <p>ERRORSSystematic error Occur according to a system which can be </p> <p>expressed mathematically Magnitude and sign can be determined Follow definite pattern Can be caused by observer, instrument, </p> <p>environmentRandom error Error left after systematic error removed May tend to cancel themselves</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 10</p> <p>UNITS OF LENGTH</p> <p> Imperial units (feet) Usually </p> <p>subdivided into decimal units in surveying</p> <p> Use of inches</p> <p> SI units (meters) Le Systeme</p> <p>Internationale dUnites(International System of Units</p> <p> Normally subdivided into decimeter, centimeter, millimeter</p> <p>NORMAL PREFIXES FOR METER exa (E) 1018 peta (p) 1015 tera (t) 1012 giga (g) 109 mega (m) 106 kilo (k) 103 hecto (h) 102 deka (da) 101</p> <p> Ex: kilometer = 1,000m</p> <p> deci (d) 10-1 centi (c) 10-2 milli (m) 10-3 micro ()10-6 nana (n) 10-9 pico (p) 10-12 femto (f) 10-15 atto (a) 10-18</p> <p> Ex: millimeter = 0.001m</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 11</p> <p>METRIC SYSTEM</p> <p> 1791 French Academy of Sciences recommended metre to be 1/10,000,000th part of polar quadrant passing through Paris</p> <p> 1799 Academy of Sciences developed new standard Metre of the Archives made of platinum 1 meter in length</p> <p> 1999 General Conference of Weights and Measures adopts International Prototype Metre platinum &amp; iridium bar</p> <p>METRIC SYSTEM</p> <p> 1960 National Prototype Meter 1,650,763.73 wavelengths of Krypton 86 atom in a vacuum</p> <p> 1983 Conference Generale des Poids et Mesures redefined meter as length of the path traveled by light in a vacuum during a time interval of 1/299792458 of a second</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 12</p> <p>FEET-METER CONVERSION</p> <p>FEET-METER CONVERSION Ferdinand Hassler brought iron meter </p> <p>bar to U.S. in 1805 for work with Coast Survey</p> <p> 1866 Congress legalized use of metric system</p> <p> 1893 Mendenhall Order Superintendent of Weight &amp; Measures 1 meter = 39.37 inches (exact) 1 U.S. Yard = (3600/3927) meter (exact)</p> <p>SURE 110 - Fundamentals of Surveying</p> <p>Basics of Surveying 13</p> <p>FEET-METER CONVERSION 1959 U.S. &amp; U.K. agreed that Imperial </p> <p>units used in both countries should be the same Defined 1 Yard = 0.9144 metre (exact) 1 ft = 0.3048 m (exact) 1 inch = 25.4 mm (exact) Did not change relationship established by </p> <p>Congress kept for surveying and called U.S. Survey foot</p>