basic photography art, composition, and computer principles aee 211 february 24, 2003

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Basic photography Art, composition, and computer principles AEE 211 February 24, 2003 Slide 2 What makes these images effective? Slide 3 Overview Basic composition Mood and atmosphere Qualities of a good photo Basic composition Improving composition Working with the computer Files Scanning Printing Slide 4 Creating mood Overall feel of a picture Created by Perspective Color Focus (isolation and distance) Weather and light Sunrise/sunset Misty, rainy days Sun vs. overcast Slide 5 Characteristics of a good photo Shape Line Pattern Texture Size and space Slide 6 Shape Tends to be noticed first, before texture and pattern Easiest and most recognizable composition tool Shape helps create a mood/character for the picture Search for the unconventional or surprise shape in objects Slide 7 Creating shape Common use backlighting to create a silhouette Uncommon side lighting with simple background underexpose to focus on shape vs. color or texture Slide 8 Slide 9 Line Lines create Shape Pattern Depth Perspective Line leads the eye Focal point/subject Diagonals S-curves Slide 10 Line creates perspective Lines into the horizon show depth and perspective for the viewer Vanishing point Point at which lines converge and vanish in to the horizon Place off-center Close-ups decrease perspective while wide- angles can exaggerate it Slide 11 Slide 12 Slide 13 Slide 14 Slide 15 Slide 16 Slide 17 Pattern Orderly combination of shape, line, or color Pattern can help echo the character of a photo Catching attention Random patterns Slight variation in a pattern Pattern in common places Slide 18 Slide 19 Slide 20 Texture Adds realism (sense of touch) to a photo Sharp (hard) light highlights texture Especially important for close-up and b/w shots Side lighting highlights texture Most portraits use front lighting to decrease texture on skin Slide 21 Slide 22 Using light for depth Sometimes hard light is inappropriate for illustrating shape and depth Soft side lighting can give a sense of shape and depth without high contrast Portraits Still life When shape/depth is more important that texture Slide 23 Slide 24 Size and space 2D pictures distort depth, relative size, and distances Include reference item Include parts of the fore- or background Use a frame Be creativemaybe you want to distort Slide 25 Giving perspective LinearLines which converge into the distance Diminishing sizeobjects further away are smaller Aerial perspectiveatmosphere creates haze, which lightens objects farther away Slide 26 Depth and perspective Overlapping formsoverlapping objects in a picture create depth and distance Selective focusingfocusing on the foreground and blurring the background Slide 27 Slide 28 Slide 29 Slide 30 Improving composition Rule of thirds Simplicity Angle and perspective Framing Slide 31 Have a strong center of interest Take pictures at different angles with different compositions Work around the rule of thirds Slide 32 Slide 33 Slide 34 Slide 35 Simplicity One strong center of interest Foreground or background should be simple or complimentary to center of interest Include foreground or background for sense of isolation, distance, depth, etc. Avoid mergers Slide 36 Slide 37 Slide 38 Slide 39 Slide 40 Cut offs Avoiding cutting out parts or wholes of people or main subjects Avoiding cutting out the path of a moving object Slide 41 Slide 42 Give the object somewhere to go Slide 43 Slide 44 Working with angles Low angles Clear sky backdrop Accentuate movement or action High angle Eliminate cloudy sky 45 degree angles will cut glare Avoid centered horizons Slide 45 Slide 46 Slide 47 Framing Adds depth Should fit theme Helps subject fill the frame Can block unwanted subjects from view Watch focus on foreground Focus on foreground in landscape Focus on subject in portraits Auto-focus should be centered on main topic OverallDEPENDS ON CAMERA Slide 48 Slide 49 Slide 50 Slide 51 Slide 52 Balance Balance color and weight in a picture Formal and informal Symmetrical and asymmetrical Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 Symmetrical Asymmetrical Slide 56 Slide 57 Fill the frame Would this picture look better if I was closer? Focus on subject Detail Start far and move closer Fill the frame with objects that fit Long range shots provide depth and perspective Slide 58 Slide 59 Slide 60 Slide 61 Digital issues File formats Scanning Printing Slide 62 Native file formats Format used by computer program Retains ability to edit within native program Unreadable on WWW or graphics programs Product families (Adobe, Microsoft, etc.) Examples .ppt,.doc,.mix Slide 63 Nonnative file formats General formats that multiple programs can open .gif,.jpg,.tif,.bmp Formatting cannot be undone within a program picture must be reedited Save pictures in both native and nonnative file formats Slide 64 Resolution Quality of the pictures on a screen, print, or file DPI = dots per inch (printer) PPI = pixels per inch (screen) More resolution means higher file size Different file types contain more or less information (resolution) Slide 65 Resolution and bits Slide 66 Tagged Image File Format Very flexible and can be opened by most programs Saves as pixels Scan as a.tiff or as a native file format if possible Slide 67 EPS files (vector) Only some programs use: FreeHand, Illustrator, CorelDraw Saved as separate images not as pixels no resolution lost with resizing Use the Options button under PRINT in PageMaker to save as EPS Slide 68 Graphical Interchange Format Great for the WWW 8-bit 256 colors (indexed color) Usually set at 72 pixels for the WWW Allows for transparency NOT used in printing Slide 69 Portable Network Graphic 24-bit (millions of colors) Transparency with jagged edges Alternative to the.gif Newer computer programs only Slide 70 Joint Photographic Experts Group 24-bit color Lossy compression You can usually set your compression here Best for WWW pictures Slide 71 Portable Document Format Embeds all data into a single file Fonts Format Pictures Text Works on any computer with reader Standardizes your document Work on WWW and as attachments Slide 72 Postscript files Will print on any postscript printer Do not need program to output data Print to file Make sure you know what kind of printer you are dealing with Slide 73 PNG GIF JPG - TIF Slide 74 Slide 75 Slide 76 Slide 77 Slide 78 General rules Scan a photo as a.tiff file For web pictures, use.jpg For print pictures, use.tiff or vector format at a minimum of 300 dpi When possible, scan/save the picture at the size to be used 300 dpi will look poor if enlarged Slide 79 RGB Color Red-green-blue Monitors and scanners determine level of the three to put on a pixel Light directly into the eye = cannot look the exact on paper Out of gamut (cannot be printed in CMYK format) Slide 80 CMYK Mode Cyan-Magenta-Yellow-Key (black) Commercially output documents or special printers Four-color printing Process colors Color bounces off object and onto your eye Get a process book or color guide to select (Pantone, Tru-Match, Agfa) Slide 81 Comparing the two RGB have smaller file sizes RGB has some features that the other does not Convert between the modes at the end or you will lose information Slide 82 Understanding resolution Resolved to our eyes = realism and accuracy Printer = DPI Monitor = bit depth (colors displayable) 72 ppi is good enough for electronic photos Slide 83 Understanding pixels Picture elements (dots) per inch Standard monitor displays 640 by 480 pixels 640 by 480 1024 by 768 More pixels requires more RAM, which may mean lower bit depth Slide 84 Enlarging with pixels