baroque music 1600 -17501 time periods in context renaissance 1450 -1600 baroque period 1600-1750...
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Time periods in contextRenaissance 1450 -1600Baroque period 1600-1750Classical period 1760 1810Romantic period1810 -191020th Centurymusic up to the present day
Renaissance 1450 -1600
Studied at Higher levelWhen Music gradually evolved from Modal to modern tonality
Baroque period 1600-1750Birth of OperaOrchestral musicInvention of violin and modern string familyCounterpoint (Polyphony)The Harpsichord is KingBirth of ConcertoComposers:BachHandelVivaldi
Instrumental MusicThe timbre of Baroque music depends on the ensemble of instruments being played texture of the music: the way the melody and harmony are combined
Instrumental MusicMany Baroque pieces polyphonic several lines of music or melodies playing together at the same time. Creates complicated sound.Most polyphonic music starts simply:One melody or theme is heard as it carries on, another instrument (or part) copies it slightly laterThis copying is called imitation.
Instrumental MusicRounds - simplest form of imitation, sungExact imitation. (like Freres Jacques)Instrumental version is called a canon imitation might not be exact: the imitation might occur at an interval of a 5th above for example.The complex form of canon is called a fugue studied at Higher level.
In this music you will hear several of the concepts outlined aboveImitationStringsCanonHarpsichordPolyphony
ground bass - a repeating bass line upon which the music is based (extended ostinato), popular during the baroque periodThe opening theme is also used for the variations decorated with twiddly bits, The twiddly bits such as trills are kinds of grace notes, (ornaments).
Instrumental MusicHomophonymelody and a simple chordal accompaniment or parts move in rhythmic unison for most of the timethe adjective is homophonic.anacrusisPassing notesCadence
Baroque OrchestraMostly consists strings, (violin, viola, cello, double bass)Strings can be played in a variety of waysBowed (ARCO)Plucked (PIZZICATO)DOUBLE STOPPING playing two strings at once.TREMOLANDO playing lots of very short notes instead of the long ones in a melodyVIBRATO the player rocks the finger on the string while it is being bowed creating a wavering and warmer tone
Baroque OrchestraTo this basic orchestra of strings, woodwind might be added: flutesoboesbassoons
Baroque OrchestraSometimes brass instruments French horns and trumpets were added
Baroque OrchestraRarely, percussion might be added effect, e.g. military drumsIn most baroque music:Harpsichordkeyboard instrument thin sound like a harp. piano not invented yetHarmonious BlacksmithPiece for solo harpsichordTheme and variations
Baroque InstrumentsA lot of music was also written for the church organ Bach: Toccatta and Fugue in D Minor
Baroque instrumentsRecorders were often played in small groups but were rarely involved in orchestral music. Flutes were considered more suitable.
Handel Music for the Royal FireworksOriginally written for wind instruments onlySuites collection of short piecesMenuetto (minuet)
Handel Music for the Royal Fireworks
ConcertoSolo instrument (or small group of solo instruments)Accompanied by OrchestraDates from the baroque periodCommon musical form ever since
Famous Baroque ConcertiVivaldi: The Four seasonsSet of four violin concertiProgramme music describes scenes from each seasonEach concerto consists of 3 Movements (separate pieces of music)
Famous Baroque ConcertiVivaldi: The Four seasonsSpring:1st movement - Allegro
Famous Baroque ConcertiVivaldi: The Four seasonsSpring : 2nd Movement - Largo
Famous Baroque ConcertiBach: Brandenburg Concerto no 2Concertino groupTrumpetOboeViolinFlute(Concerto Grosso)
Famous Baroque ConcertiBach: Brandenburg Concerto no 2
OPERAMusic Drama set on stageSingers play different main rolesChorus play part of crowds, etc
Types of voice(Register)SOPRANO Highest Female VoiceALTO Lower Female voice MEZZO SOPRANO - is what solo alto is usually called in later Operas COUNTER TENOR Male, same register -TENOR Higher Male voice BARITONE Between Tenor and BassBASS Lowest Male voice
Types of Singing
RECITATIVE A Narrator describing a scene or moving story along NOT song-like Wordy, lots of lyricsARIA A Song Lots of repetition and sequence MELISMACHORUS an aria for the chorus
Types of OperaOPERAORATORIOCANTATAPASSION
Types of OperaOPERAMusic Drama set on stageSingers play different main rolesChorus play part of crowds etcORATORIOStory from the bible(e.g. Christmas or Ruth)Originally staged but now just sungCANTATAMini OratorioPASSIONOratorio based on story of suffering on the cross
ORATORIOStory from the bible like:Ruth, Christmas or JepthaOriginally staged but now just sungCANTATA is a Mini OratorioPASSIONOratorio based on story of suffering on the cross
PassionStory of events leading up to crucifictionBest known ones by Bach eg St MatthewSung in GermanInclude SATB ChoralesA cappellahomophonicanacrusisPassing notesCadencesuspension
Other Baroque conceptsTierce da picardie:Perfect cadence in a minor key where the tonic chord (Chord 1) is unexpectedly changed to the majorObligatoA slow tune ( often a solo sung chorale) decorated by a solo instrument, particularly at the end of phrases
Bach instrumental suite in B minor track 46/ branden