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  • No. 4-19-0611

    IN THE APPELLATE COURT OF ILLINOIS

    FOURTH DISTRICT

    JOHN TILLMAN,

    Petitioner-Appellant, v.

    J.B. PRITZKER, Governor of the State of Illinois, in his official capacity; MICHAEL W. FRERICHS, Treasurer of the State of Illinois, in his official capacity; and SUSANA A. MENDOZA, Comptroller of the State of Illinois, in her official capacity,

    Respondents-Appellees.

    ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) )

    Appeal from the Circuit Court of the Seventh Judicial Circuit, Sangamon County, Illinois

    No. 2019 CH 235

    The Honorable JACK D. DAVIS, II, Judge Presiding.

    BRIEF OF RESPONDENTS-APPELLEES

    RICHARD S. HUSZAGH Assistant Attorney General 100 West Randolph Street 12th Floor Chicago, Illinois 60601 (312) 814-2587 Primary e-service: CivilAppeals@atg.state.il.us Secondary e-service: rhuszagh@atg.state.il.us

    KWAME RAOUL Attorney General State of Illinois

    JANE ELINOR NOTZ Solicitor General

    100 West Randolph Street 12th Floor Chicago, Illinois 60601 (312) 814-3312

    Attorneys for Respondents-Appellees

    ORAL ARGUMENT REQUESTED

  • POINTS AND AUTHORITIES page(s)

    I. Summary of Argument. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    II. Standard of Review.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    People ex rel. White v. Busenhart, 29 Ill. 2d 156 (1963). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10, 11

    Hamer v. Dixon, 61 Ill. App. 3d 30 (2d Dist. 1978). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Eychaner v. Gross, 202 Ill. 2d 228 (2002). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    Beckman v. Freeman United Coal Mining Co., 123 Ill. 2d. 281 (1988). . . . . . 11

    Kaider v. Hamos, 2012 IL App (1st) 111109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    III. Standards Governing Taxpayer Suits. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    735 ILCS 5/11–301 (2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    735 ILCS 5/11–303 (2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    Strat-O-Seal Mfg. Co. v. Scott, 27 Ill. 2d 563 (1963). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11, 12

    Daly v. Madison County, 378 Ill. 357 (1941). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    Hamer v. Dixon, 61 Ill. App. 3d 30 (2d Dist. 1978). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    People ex rel. White v. Busenhart, 29 Ill. 2d 156 (1963).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Kaider v. Hamos, 2012 IL App (1st) 111109. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Barco Mfg. Co. v. Wright, 10 Ill. 2d 157 (1956). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    Beacham v. Walker, 231 Ill. 2d 51 (2008). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    IV. The Circuit Court Properly Denied Petitioner Leave to Pursue His Claim that the 2003 and 2017 Bond Acts Violate the State Debt Clause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

    A. The Circuit Court Was Not Required to Let Petitioner Proceed on a Legally Meritless Claim. . . . . . . . 13

    735 ILCS 5/11–303 (2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13, 14

    i

  • People ex rel. White v. Busenhart, 29 Ill. 2d 156 (1963).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    Strat-O-Seal Mfg. Co. v. Scott, 27 Ill. 2d 563 (1963). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    Hamer v. Dixon, 61 Ill. App. 3d 30 (2d Dist. 1978). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14

    Webb v. Rock, 80 Ill. App. 3d 891 (4th Dist. 1980). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    B. Petitioner’s Proposed Taxpayer Action to Enjoin State Payments on the Bonds Was Barred by Laches.. . . . 16

    Bowman v. Lake County, 29 Ill. 2d 268 (1963).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16, 17

    Solomon v. N. Shore Sanitary Dist., 48 Ill. 2d 309 (1971).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    DiSanto v. City of Warrenville, 59 Ill. App. 3d 931 (2d Dist. 1978). . . . . . . . . 16

    Parks v. Parks, 2019 IL App (3d) 170845. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

    www.illinoispolicy.org/illinois-bill-backlog-stands-at-nearly-16-4b (last accessed Feb. 10, 2020).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Strat-O-Seal Mfg. Co. v. Scott, 27 Ill. 2d 563 (1963). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    C. Petitioner’s Claim to Enjoin State Payments on the 2003 Bonds Was Barred by the Applicable Statute of Limitations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    735 ILCS 5/13–205. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18

    Flynn v. Stevenson, 4 Ill. App. 3d 458 (2d Dist. 1972). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    D. Petitioner Failed to Join the Bondholders as Necessary Parties to His Suit Seeking to Enjoin Payments to Them. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

    Oglesby v. Springfield Marine Bank, 385 Ill. 414 (1944). . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21

    Feen v. Ray, 109 Ill. 2d 339 (1985). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20, 21

    Hobbs v. Pinnell, 17 Ill. 2d 535 (1959). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Moore v. McDaniel, 48 Ill. App. 3d 152 (1977). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Lakeview Tr. & Sav. Bank v. Estrada, 134 Ill. App. 3d 792 (1st Dist. 1985).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    ii

  • City of Elgin v. Arch Ins. Co., 2015 IL App (2d) 150013. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Borrowman v. Howland, 119 Ill. App. 3d 493 (4th Dist. 1983).. . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Hauser v. Power, 351 Ill. 36 (1932). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    Application of Busse, 145 Ill. App. 3d 530 (1st Dist. 1986). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    In re Adoption of Ledbetter, 125 Ill. App. 3d 306 (4th Dist. 1984). . . . . . . . . . 21

    Vill. of Lansing v. Sundstrom, 379 Ill. 121 (1942). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Flashner Med. P’ship v. Mktg. Mgmt., Inc., 189 Ill. App. 3d 45 (1st Dist. 1989).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    City of Evanston v. Reg’l Transp. Auth., 209 Ill. App. 3d 447 (1st Dist. 1991).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

    Sundance Homes, Inc. v. County of DuPage, 195 Ill. 2d 257 (2001). . . . . . 21–22

    30 ILCS 330/18 (2018). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    E. The Laws Authorizing the 2003 and 2017 Bonds Satisfy the State Debt Clause’s Requirement that These Laws Set Forth the Bonds’ Specific Purposes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

    1. Standards for Evaluating Constitutional Challenges to Statutes.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Wirtz v. Quinn, 2011 IL 111903. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    People v. Rizzo, 2016 IL 118599. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Arangold Corp. v. Zehnder, 204 Ill. 2d 142 (2003).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    2. Section 9(b) of the State Debt Clause Requires a Law Authorizing Long-Term State Debt Only to Define in Reasonable Detail the Objectives to Be Accomplished and How the Proceeds Will Be Spent.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

    Ill. Const. art. IX, § 9(b). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23–24

    People ex rel. Ogilvie v. Lewis, 49 Ill. 2d 476 (1971).. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    iii

  • a. Principles of Constitutional Interpretation. . . . . 24

    Blanchard v. Berrios, 2016 IL 120315. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24, 25

    Walker v. McGuire, 2015 IL 117138. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

    Committee for Educ. Rights v. Edgar, 174 Ill. 2d 1 (1996). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    Cook v. Ill. State Bd. of Elections, 2016 IL App (4th) 160160. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    Gregg v. Rauner, 2018 IL 122802. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    Kanerva v. Weems, 2014 IL 115811.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    b. The State Debt Clause’s Text. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    Ill. Const., art. IX, § 9. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . passim

    Kanerva v. Weems, 2014 IL 115811.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    Cook v. Ill. State Bd. of Elections, 2016 IL App (4th) 160160. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    c. Judicial Interpretation of the State Debt Clause. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

    People ex rel. Ogilvie v. Lewis, 49 Ill. 2d 476 (1971). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28–29

    d. Background of the State Debt Clause. . . . . . . . . . 29

    Record of Proceedings, Sixth Ill. Const’l Convention. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30–32

    Ill. Const. 1870, art. IV, § 18. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .