Ashutosh Sachan Training Report
Post on 04-Mar-2015
Industrial Training ReportAt
Submitted toMr. RISHI CHAWLAProduction Manager HCCBPL, Jaipur
Submitted byASHUTOSH SACHANCentral Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology (CIPET), Lucknow
This is to certify that ASHUTOSH SACHAN student of B.Tech. (Plastic Engineering) (2nd YEAR) [2009-2013] from Central Institute of Plastics Engineering & Technology, Lucknow has successfully completed his summer training at Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur, for a period of four weeks, commenced on 20th June, 2011.
Mr. RISHI CHAWLAProduction Manager HCCBPL Jaipur (Rajasthan)
INDEX Preface Overview of the Coca-Cola company The Coca-Cola Company Coca-Cola System Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur RGB line overview RGB line flow-chart RGB line functioning Curbing Breakage of glass bottles on RGB line Prime locations of bottles breakage Immediate actions Long term plans PET Bottling Plant Overview PET Bottling Plant flow-chart Polyethylene Terephthalate PET Bottle Processing Equipment Blow Molding Extrusion blow molding Injection blow molding Stretch blow molding. Types of Defects in PET Bottles Basic Equipment Care (BEC) Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)
PREFACEIn-Plant training has been misinterpreted by most of us, Industrial training, in a true sense, has been included in the curriculum to make the students well versed with the technical procedure of various industries and the basic criteria for management of resources in a company or industry. The educational institutions sole aim by industrial training is to improve the technical know-how and to have a hand on experience to make them realistic in thinking to understanding the procedure for manufacturing keeping in mind the minute detail which will benefit the customer. Like no learning is proper without implementation, similarly the terms and procedures we learn are of no use until and unless we bring them in practical applications. To summarize, industrial training teaches us industrial ethics, advance technical know-how and helps us to get acquainted with industrial working style. The document summaries the current state of Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur, Rajasthan. The document provides information working procedure and final products of different divisions. Overall it provides a common wide understanding of its production procedures & end products.
The Coca-Cola Company is a beverage retailer, manufacturer and marketer of non-alcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups. The company is best known for its flagship product CocaCola, invented by pharmacist John Stith Pemberton in 1886. The CocaCola formula and brand was bought in 1889 by Asa Candler who incorporated The Coca-Cola Company in 1892. Besides its namesake Coca-Cola beverage, Coca-Cola currently offers more than 500 brands in over 200 countries or territories and serves over 1.6 billion servings each day. The company operates a franchised distribution system dating from 1889 where The Coca-Cola Company only produces syrup concentrate which is then sold to various bottlers throughout the world the bottlers hold an exclusive territory contracts with the company, produce finished product in cans and bottles from the concentrate in combination with filtered water and sweeteners. The bottlers then sell, distribute and merchandise Coca-Cola to retail stores and vending machines. Such bottlers include Coca-Cola Enterprises & Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd which is the bottler in India. The Coca-Cola Company is headquartered in Atlanta, Georgia. the Coca-Cola company 0ffers 16 brands namely Coca-Cola, Diet Coke, Thumsup, Sprite, Fanta, Limca, Maaza, Maaza Milky Delite, Minute Maid Pulpy Orange, MM Nimbu Fresh, Burn, Kinley Water, Kinley Soda, Nestea, Schweppes & GEORGIA Gold.
At the core of business in India, as in the rest of the world is the production and distribution network, which is called the Coca-Cola system. Globally, the Coca-Cola system includes the Company and more than 300 bottling partners. The Coca-Cola Company manufactures and sells concentrate and beverage bases. The authorized bottlers combine the concentrate or beverage bases as the case may be with sweetener (depending on the product), water or carbonated water to produce finished beverages. These finished beverages are packaged in authorized containers bearing trademarks -- such as cans, refillable glass bottles, non-refillable PET bottles and tetra packs -- and are then sold to wholesalers or retailers. In India, additionally, the Company also sells certain powdered beverage mixes such as Vitingo and Fanta Fun Taste. The beverages reach ultimate consumers through customers: the grocers, small retailers, hypermarkets, restaurants, convenience stores and millions of other businesses that are the final points of distribution in the Coca-Cola system. What truly defines the Coca-Cola system, and indeed what makes it unique among businesses, is the ability to create value for customers and consumers. In India, the Coca-Cola system comprises of a wholly owned subsidiary of The Coca-Cola Company namely Coca-Cola India Pvt. Ltd which manufactures and sells concentrate and beverage bases and powdered beverage mixes, a Company-owned bottling entity, namely, Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd; thirteen authorized bottling partners of The Coca-Cola Company, who are authorized to prepare,
package, sell and distribute beverages under certain specified trademarks of The Coca-Cola Company and an extensive distribution system comprising of customers, distributors and retailers. Coca-Cola India Private Limited sells concentrate and beverage bases to authorized bottlers who are authorized to use these to produce portfolio of beverages. These authorized bottlers independently develop local markets and distribute beverages to grocers, small retailers, supermarkets, restaurants and numerous other businesses. In turn, these customers make beverages available to consumers across India.
Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Pvt. Ltd., Jaipur
Hindustan Coca-Cola Beverages Private Limited at Jaipur was started in late 1999. To be exact on 26th December 1999, with the production started with the RGB line, i.e. Return Glass Bottle Line. PET bottling plant was installed in the year 2003, where the PET bottles were formed and filled. Today both the lines are running successfully with an average production of 36000 thousand bottles per hour in RGB Line, i.e. with approximately capacity of 8,64,000 bottles in a single day. And with 7000-9000 PET bottles per hour, i.e. approximately capacity of 1,68,000 - 2,16,000 PET bottles according to different size variants, ranging from 600ml to 2.25 litres
RGB Line overviewThe RGB line deals with the filling of glass bottles of different shape & volumes. RGB stands for Return Glass Bottle. In this line empty glass bottles that are brought back from the market are refilled with fresh beverages. This line has very high production rate up to 600 BPM (bottles per minute) which results in the production of 36000 bottles per hour which is amongst the highest rate of production of finished goods in a manufacturing unit. In this line two key machines that are used is the bottle filler & crowning machine and the bottles washer. The dirty bottles are cleaned using the bottles washer that removes all dirt & germs form the bottles and then the bottles are filled & crowned by the bottle filler & crowning machine. This production line is a fully automated line in which the bottles move on a moving conveyor line, this provides high work standard & quality to the product.
RGB line (Return Glass Bottle line) flowchart1. Input-bottles are transferred in crates to conveyor line 2. Bottles are washed by a water jet
Empty crates are sent to crate cleaner for cleaning
3. Bottles are transferred from crates to main conveyor line by encaser
5. Bottles are washed in a 6-phase bottles washer
4. Bottles are inspected manually for irregularities
6. Bottles are transferred from bottle washer to filler conveyor line
Flow chart illustrating functioning of RGB line
7. ASEBI machine separates defective bottles
8. Beverage is filled in bottles & crowned by bottle filler
Cleaned crates are sent from crate cleaner to caser
9. Inkjet printer prints mrp. and other info on the bottles
11. Filled bottles are transferred from conveyor to crates by caser
10. Filled bottles are inspected for defects manually and separated
Functioning of RGB line1. Bottles to be filled are loaded on the conveyor in crates for filling manually. A worker transfers the crates one by one to the conveyor from the stack of crates. 2. A water jet cleans the bottles in the crates, this removes some of the dust & other unwanted materials form the bottles in the crates. 3. The bottles are now transferred from the crates to the conveyor by encase. The encaser picks up 96 bottles in one go i.e. it picks up bottles from four crates in one go that is a total of 96 bottles. 4. The bottles are inspected manually for bottles of different brands than the once that are under production. The unwanted once are removed. 5. The bottles are washed in a 6-phase bottles washer. The bottles washer cleans the bottles using hot water and a number of chemical cleaning agents. It mainly uses hot water & caustic for cleaning the bottles. This machine uses moving pockets for taking the dirty bottles into it for cleaning & putting the cleaned bottles back to the conveyor. It has groups of 40 pockets lined together in which the bottles are kept such that their neck is on the inside of the neck. The six cleaning steps in a bottles washer are:1) Pre rinse by 3 jets. 2) Pre caustic soak 1 3) Pre caustic soak 2 4) Hydro cleaning 5) Pre final rinse treatment 1 6) Pre final rinse treatment 2
6. The cleaned bottles are transferred from the bottles cleaner to the filler conveyor and are sent for filling to the filler. 7. The EBI machine separates the defective bottles i.e. the bottles with chipped finish are discarded & the once those are dirty are sent for rewash. This machine is a credible and precise rotary type inspection machine that automatically inspects damage, flaw, external substances (bottom and sidewall of bottle) and uncleanness in an empty bottle. This inspects the
sidewall of glass containers that camera & illumination is installed to inspect the inclusions, bubbles, stone, bird wings, laps etc. The machine performs an inspection without contact between bottle and machine regardless the production speed. This machine uses a preloaded image that is used as standard, the bottles passing through the machine are compared to the standard. 8. Beverage is filled in the bottles by the filler and is crowned simultaneously by the same machine. This machine is a computer controlled machine that fills pressurized carbonated drink in the bottles. The vent first sends carbon dioxide inside the bottle that in turn develops a counter pressure that opens a valve which enables inlet of beverage in the bottle. As soon as the bottles are filled the filled bottles are transferred to the crowning section where the crowns are fitted on the heads of the bottles which seals them. 9. The inkjet printer prints data as required on the filled bottles. The printer generally prints maximum retail price, batch number of production, production date & time on the bottle. The data to be printed on the bottles is set by a computer system in the machine comprising of a display & keyboard. The data to be printed is set using this system. 10. The filled bottles are inspected manually for leaked bottles, bottles that are not filled properly & bottles that are not crowned properly. The bottles that are found defective are removed and are sent for refilling. 11. The filled bottles are transferred from the conveyor line to the crates by caser.
Curbing Breakage of glass bottles on RGB line
Prime locations of bottles breakage1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
At the place where the worker loads the crates on the conveyor. At the EBI where bottles with chipped finish are discarded At the crate cleaner At the filling machine Along the conveyor belt ( bottles fall due to slipping off the conveyor) At the location where crowned bottles are inspected for defects.
Immediate actionsPlacing bins of proper shape for bottle collection instead of drums used presently at specified locations.
Bins of such shape will enable proper collection of the bottles and easy replacement when filled. The bins should have wheels that would make them easily movable when they are filled helping the workers to remove them easily form time to time. Locations for use of such bins:- EBI machine, crate cleaner & inspection site of crowned bottled. The size of the guard rails on the conveyor could be increased on the turn, this will reduce the slipping of bottles on the turns because generally many bottles fall on the turns which result in bottles breakage.
Long term plansAt the loading site where worker puts the crates on the conveyorA conveyor could be installed below the main conveyor that moves opposite in direction to the main conveyor, it would carry the bottles to a specified point where the bottles could be collected and removed periodically. This is the only possible measure at this location because there is no room for placing a bin for collection of bottles.
The above sketch shows the side view of the conveyor that could be installed below the main crate carrying conveyor this conveyor would carry the bottles falling from the crates.
The sketch below shows the front view of the conveyor that could be installed below the main crate carrying conveyor, metal sheets or metallic mesh could be installed as side guards which would guide the bottles falling into the moving conveyor below the main conveyor.
At the EBI where bottles with chipped finish are discardedA conveyor could be set here also carry the bottles to a specified point where the bottles could be collected and removed periodically. Or AGC (automatic guided carts) could be used to collect, carry & dump the bottles at a predefined site.
AGC (automatic guided carts) are smart carts that move on pre specified path marked by magnetic tape. Set of two AGCs could be deployed at every site to collect and dump the broken glass bottles.
System for removal of glass spilled on the floorCommercial vacuum cleaner can be deployed for removal of glass pieces on the floor. A high suction vacuum cleaner can lift small and larger pieces of glass. This could be operated by just a single person at certain time intervals in the production area especially inside the filling room to remove glass pieces from the floor.
PET Bottling Plant Overview1. The packaged preform or parison are fed to the hopper, through which they are fed to the stretch blow molding machine. 2. The preforms in the stretch blow molding machine are provided a rotary motion and are sufficiently heated above the glass transition temperature of PET i.e. 76 degrees, with the help of heaters of wattage 1600W and 1200W and then are fed to the two piece mould for blow molding, where they are first stretched longitudinally with the help of a stretching rod, and then pre final pressured air (14-16 bar) is blown followed by a final pressure of 34-36 bar. 3. The pet bottle takes the shape of the mould and is cooled down inside the mould itself. A continuous flow of cold water takes place inside the mould for cooling of the PET bottles. 4. Formed PET bottles are transferred through air conveyers through blowers 5. The bottles are then fed to the filling area where they are first washed with water at a pressure of 2 kilograms 6. Then in the filling area, a pressure of five kilograms is applied, to check any leakage or deformation in the bottle. If any bottle detected with leakage the beverage is not filled inside and is rejected. 7. After application of pressure, carbonated beverage is then filled inside the PET bottles and then capping of bottles takes place. 8. After capping the bottles are fed through conveyor to the warmer for warming the bottles, so as to remove the condensed water vapors from the bottle surface. Warm water at a temperature of 40 degrees is used. 9. After warming up the filled bottles the send for labeling, where the labels of the particular variant is made to stick on the beverage bottles. 10. After labeling, coding is done. Batch number, date and time are printed on the bottles. Then the bottles are fed to the caser machine where they are packed in cartons, followed by upper tapping of the cartons, and then the cartons are manually lifted and stacked.
Flow Chart: Plant Overview
Rotary Motion Preforms or Parison
Heating of Preform
Stretch Blow Molding
Washing at 2kg water pressure.
Transfer to warmer 5kg Air pressure
Caser Machine & Carton packaging.
Labeling & Coding
Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)Polyethylene terephthalate (sometimes written poly(ethylene terephthalate)), commonly abbreviated PET, PETE, or the obsolete PETP or PET-P, is a thermoplastic polymer resin of the polyester family made by condensing ethylene glycol and terephthalic acid, and is used in synthetic fibers; beverage, food and other liquid containers; thermoforming applications; and engineering resins often in combination with glass fiber.
PET is a semi-crystalline thermoplastic, which softens at approx. 76C (what is called Glass Transition). Above this temperature, the material becomes elastic, and can be formed, a property utilized effectively in the Stretch Blow Molding process. Due to its glass transition at approx. 76C, PET is initially unsuitable as a bottle material for a hotfilling process above this temperature, since deformations may occur: Firstly, the bottles shrink, since they remember their previous shape (namely the preform), and secondly they collapse under internal pressure, a typical phenomenon during the cool-down period after hot filling.
PET Bottle processing equipmentThere are two basic molding methods for PET bottles, one-step and two-step. In two-step molding, two separate machines are used. The first machine injection molds the preform, which resembles a test tube, with the bottle-cap threads already molded into place. The body of the tube is significantly thicker, as it will be inflated into its final shape in the second step using stretch blow molding. In the second step, the preforms are heated rapidly and then inflated against a two-part mold to form them into the final shape of the bottle. In one-step machines, the entire process from raw material to finished container is conducted within one machine, making it especially suitable for molding non-standard shapes (custom molding), including jars, flat oval, flask shapes etc. Its greatest merit is the reduction in space, product handling and energy, and far higher visual quality than can be achieved by the two-step system.
Blow molding (also known as blow molding or blow forming) is a manufacturing process by which hollow plastic parts are formed. In general, there are three main types of blow molding: Extrusion blow molding, Injection blow molding, and Stretch blow molding.
The blow molding process begins with melting down the plastic and forming it into a parison or preform. The parison is a tube-like piece of plastic with a hole in one end in which compressed air can pass through. The parison or preform is then clamped into a mold and air is pumped into it. The air pressure then pushes the plastic out to match the mold. Once the plastic has cooled and hardened the mold opens up and the part is ejected.
Extrusion blow moldingIn extrusion blow molding (EBM), plastic is melted and extruded into a hollow tube (a preform). This preform is then captured by closing it into a cooled metal mold. Air is then blown into the preform, inflating it into the shape of the hollow bottle, container or part. After the plastic has cooled sufficiently, the mold is opened and the part is ejected. Continuous and Intermittent are two variations of Extrusion Blow Molding. In Continuous Extrusion Blow Molding the preform is extruded continuously and the individual parts are cut off by a suitable knife. In Intermittent blow molding there are two processes: straight intermittent is similar to injection molding whereby the screw turns, then stops and pushes the melt out. With the accumulator method, an accumulator gathers melted plastic and when the previous mold has cooled and enough plastic has accumulated, a rod pushes the melted plastic and forms the preform. In this case the screw may turn continuously or intermittently. EBM processes may be either continuous (constant extrusion of the preform) or intermittent.
Extrusion blow molding 1. 2. 3. 4. Reciprocating screw Compressed air; Hopper; Granules; 5. Barrel; 6. Heaters 7. Grinding, mixing 8. Actuators hydraulic generator 9. Draw plate 10. Core/punch
Injection blow moldingThe process of injection blow molding (IBM) is used for the production of hollow glass and plastic objects in large quantities. In the IBM process, the polymer is injection molded onto a core pin; then the core pin is rotated to a blow molding station to be inflated and cooled. This is the least-used of the three blow molding processes, and is typically used to make small medical and single serve bottles. The process is divided into three steps: injection, blowing and ejection. The injection blow molding machine is based on an extruder barrel and screw assembly which melts the polymer. The molten polymer is fed into a manifold where it is injected through nozzles into a hollow, heated preform mold. The preform mold forms the external shape and is clamped around a mandrel (the core rod) which forms the internal shape of the preform. The preform consists of a fully formed bottle/jar neck with a thick tube of polymer attached, which will form the body. The preform mold opens and the core rod is rotated and clamped into the hollow, chilled blow mold. The core rod opens and allows compressed air into the preform, which inflates it to the finished article shape. After a cooling period the blow mold opens and the core rod is rotated to the ejection position. The finished article is stripped off the core rod and leak-tested prior to packing. The preform and blow mold can have many cavities, typically three to sixteen depending on the article size and the required output. There are three sets of core rods, which allow concurrent preform injection, blow molding and ejection.
Injection Blow Molding Machine
Stretch Blow MoldingIn the stretch blow molding (SBM) process, the plastic is first molded into a "preform" using the injection molding process. These preforms are produced with the necks of the bottles, including threads (the "finish") on one end. These preforms are packaged, and fed later (after cooling) into a reheat stretch blow molding machine. In the SBM process, the preforms are heated (typically using infrared heaters) above their glass transition temperature, then blown using high pressure air into bottles using metal blow molds. Usually the preform is stretched with a core rod as part of the process. In the single-stage process both preform manufacture and bottle blowing are performed in the same machine. The stretching of some polymers, such as PET (polyethylene terephthalate) results in strain hardening of the resin, allowing the bottles to resist deforming under the pressures formed by carbonated beverages. The main applications are bottles, jars and other containers. Advantages of blow molding include: low tool and die cost; fast production rates; ability to mold complex part; produces recyclable parts Disadvantages of blow molding include: limited to hollow parts, wall thickness is hard to control.
Stretch Blow Molding Process
Types of Defects in PET Bottles Deformed neck Folded neck Base Clearance on a Champagne Base Bottle Choked Bottle Excess material on the base Flat on the parting line Magnification effect Magnification effect on base Off centered injection point Opalescence Pearlscence Punctured base White feet White feet / injection point off centered White feet / over stretched base
Causes: Excessive temperation in the zone under the neck
Causes: Wrong profile in the oven Late pre-blowing Pre-blowing pressure too low
BASE CLEARANCE ON A CHAMPAGNE BASE BOTTLE
Causes: Mold temperature excessively hot Excessive heat and temperature in base zones
Causes: Low temperature in the oven Delay in the pre-blow
EXCESS MATERIAL ON THE BASE
Causes: Low temperature in Zones 7 & 8 Delay in pre-blowing Pre-blow pressure low
OFF-CENTERED INJUCTION POINT
Causes: High temperature in Zones 7 & 8 Pre-blowing too soon Pre-blow pressure too high
FLAT ON THE PARTING LINE
Causes: The pre-blow is either too low or too late High-blow is premature or too high Mold compensation not properly adjusted
Causes: Blowing with high temperature
Causes: Blowing with cold temperature
Causes: Low temperature in Zone 1 & 2 High pressure in the pre-blowing process Pre-blowing too early
Causes: Low temperature in the oven Low temperature in Zones 7 & 8
White Feet/Over-Stretched Base
Causes: High temperature in the oven High temperature in Zones 7 & 8
Causes: Excessive temperature in Zone 8 Pre-blow pressure too high Pre-blowing much too early
White Feet/Injection Point Off Centered
Causes: Low temperature in the oven (Specially Zones 7 & 8) Early pre-blowing Pre-blowing pressure slightly high
Magnification Effect on The Base
Causes: Low temperature in Zone 7 & 8 Too great of a delay in pre-blowing Pre-blowing pressure too low
Basic Testing of PET BottlesHot Wire Bottle Cutter
PET bottle test sample of capacities 500ml to 2.25 lts can be precisely cut in 3 parts: bottom, cylinder and top. Each of these parts having exact assigned weights, to comply with the quality specification obtaining an ideal wall thinness distribution. This guarantees the physical and mechanical quality requirement. The product process is being controlled on a statistical basis by checking the weight of the cut parts.
Basic Equipment Care (BEC)Basic Equipment Care deals with mainly caring, oiling and greasing of parts like bearings, rollers, pulleys, wheels, timely tightening of nut-bolts and various other machinery parts and timely maintenance of machines. Step zeroSafety One needs to physically inspect his surroundings for immediate safety measures. Initial cleaning Cleaning to Inspect Inspect to Detect Detect to Correct
Types of Abnormalities: Minor Flow Poor Basic Condition Inaccessible place Contamination source Quality item Unsafe area
Total Productive Maintenance (TPM)Total productive maintenance (TPM) originated in Japan in 1971. It may be misunderstood as a new way of looking at maintenance, however, at least in Japan, it is a well-established process. In TPM, the machine operator is thoroughly trained to perform much of the simple maintenance and fault-finding. Eventually, by working in "Zero Defects" teams that include a technical expert as well as operators, they can learn many more tasks - sometimes all those within the scope of an operator. Tradesmen are also trained at doing the more skilled tasks to help ensure process reliability. This should be fully documented, Autonomous Maintenance ensures appropriate and effective efforts are expended after the machine becomes wholly the domain of one person or team. Safety is paramount, so training must be appropriate. Operators are often capable of high standards of technical ability, this is improved through the use of "best practice" procedures and proper training of these procedures. TPM is a maintenance process developed for improving productivity by making processes more reliable and less wasteful. Original goal of total productive management: Continuously improve all operational conditions, within a production system; by stimulating the daily awareness of all employees
TPM focuses primarily on manufacturing (although its benefits are applicable to virtually any "process"). After TPM, the focus was stretched, and also suppliers and customers were involved (Supply Chain), this next methodology was called lean manufacturing. This sheet gives an overview of TPM in its original form. An accurate and practical implementation of TPM, will increase productivity within the total organization, where: (1) .. a clear business culture is designed to continuously improve the efficiency of the total production system (2) .. a standardized and systematic approach is used, where all losses are prevented and/or known. (3) .. all departments, influencing productivity, will be involved to move from a reactiveto a predictive mindset. (4) .. a transparent multidisciplinary organization is reaching zero losses. (5) .. steps are taken as a journey, not as a quick menu. Finally TPM will provide practical and transparent ingredients to reach operational excellence.