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“The story of materials is the story of civilization”e stone agee iron agee bronze agee silicon ageToday’s age: new materials continue to change the way we build everything

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  • Hard to imagine a world without advanced materials

    “The story of materials is the story of civilization”

    thestoneage,ironandbronzeages

    The stone age

    The iron age

    The bronze age

    The silicon age

    Today’s age:

    new materials continue to change the

    way we build everything

  • Hard to imagine a world without advanced materials

    “The story of materials is the story of civilization”

    thestoneage,ironandbronzeages

    The stone age

    The iron age

    The bronze age

    The silicon age

    Material properties emerge from quantum mechanical phenomenaChanges at invisibly small scales are manifested as changes at the human scale

    The Physics connection

    * The birth of quantum mechanics

    Today’s age:

    new materials continue to change the

    way we build everything

  • Silicon

    •  Most perfect material we’ve ever made in production

    •  Underlies current technological era •  Prototypical semiconductor •  GaAs (III-V), ZnTe (II-VI) …..

  • Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)

    •  Solar cell materials

    http://www.hmi.de/people/daniel.abou-ras/SEM.htm

  • Ga0.95Mn0.05As

    •  Spintronics •  Dilute magnetic semiconductor - new

    electronics by control of spin?

    Spin transistor ! Semiconductor !Spintronic Devices!

  • YBa2Cu3O7 •  90-K high-temperature superconductor •  We still don’t really know why it works

  • La[O1-xFx]FeAs •  Hosono et al., 2008 •  26-K HTSC with Fe in it!

    J. Am. Chem. Soc., 2008, 130 (11), 3296-3297

  • Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR)

    •  Read heads

  • In2O3:Sn

    •  Representative of transparent conductors, transparent semiconductors

    •  ZnO:Al, SnO2:F, IGZO, IZO

  • Thermoelectrics

    •  NaxCoO2 •  Bi2Te3 •  zT =α2σT/κ

  • Ferroelectrics

    •  BaTiO3 PZT (lead zirconate titanate) •  Tunable capacitors, ferroelectric

    memory (like ferromagnetic)

  • Multiferroics

    •  Some combination of ferromagnetism (or antiferromagnetism), ferroelectricity, or ferroelasticity in same material.

    •  HoMnO3

  • Metamaterials

    •  Photonic crystals (semiconductors with light)

    •  Negative index materials (sub-wavelength focusing, …)

  • Qubits & quantum computing

    •  Quantum computing on a chip?

    Graphene-based magnetic-based

  • Nanoscale materials

    Carbon nanotubes Graphene

    •  New opportunities to tune/engineer material properties

  • The future

    •  Solid state lighting •  Solid state batteries •  Solid state heating/cooling •  Solar cells •  Catalysts •  Spintronics •  Quantum computing •  Metamaterials

  • PH475/575 Spring 2012

    Fundamentals of physics of condensed state

    Understand properties from microscopic view

    Electronic structure of solids

    Single atom and build up solid by considering interactions between atoms (solid = huge molecule)

    (Real space, more intuitive, amorphous, defective materials)

    Traditional k-space exploits symmetry, results are in principle no good for defects etc.