ADVICE AND PRACTICE QUOTATION MARKS. Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Quotation – serves to set off material that represents quoted or spoken language.

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  • Slide 1
  • ADVICE AND PRACTICE QUOTATION MARKS
  • Slide 2
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Quotation serves to set off material that represents quoted or spoken language Hillocks (1986) similarly reviews dozens of research findings. He writes, The available research suggests that teaching by written comment on compositions is generally ineffective(p. 167). In the United States, periods and commas go inside quotation marks regardless of logic. My favorite poem is Robert Frost's Design. In the United Kingdom, Canada, and islands under the influence of British education, punctuation around quotation marks is more apt to follow logic. My favorite poem is Robert Frost's Design. The placement of marks other than periods and commas follows the logic. What do you think of Robert Frost's Design?
  • Slide 3
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Single quotation marks in the US English they are used to enclose quoted material within other quoted material Design is my favorite poem, he said. British practice, again, is quite different. In fact, single-quote marks and double-quote marks are apt to be reversed in usage. In newspapers, single quotation marks are used in headlines where double quotation marks would otherwise appear. Congress Cries Shame! In philosophical discourse, key concepts may be set apart with single-quote marks. When such concepts are set off in this way, periods and commas go outside the single-quote marks. Sartre's treatment of being, as opposed to his treatment of non-being, has been thoroughly described in Kaufmann's book.
  • Slide 4
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Direct quotations involve incorporating another person's exact words into your own writing. Quotation marks always come in pairs. Do not open a quotation and fail to close it at the end of the quoted material. Capitalize the first letter of a direct quote when the quoted material is a complete sentence. Mr. Johnson, who was working in his field that morning, said, "The alien spaceship appeared right before my own two eyes." Do not use a capital letter when the quoted material is a fragment or only a piece of the original material's complete sentence. Although Mr. Johnson has seen odd happenings on the farm, he stated that the spaceship "certainly takes the cake" when it comes to unexplainable activity. If a direct quotation is interrupted with a mid-sentence, do not capitalize the second part of the quotation. "I didn't see an actual alien being," Mr. Johnson said, "but I sure wish I had."
  • Slide 5
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks When quoting text with a spelling or grammar error, you should transcribe the error exactly in your own text. However, also insert the term sic in italics directly after the mistake and enclose it in brackets. Mr. Johnson says of the experience, "it's made me reconsider the existence of extraterestials [sic]." Quotations are most effective if you use them sparingly and keep them relatively short. Too many quotations in a research paper will get you accused of not producing original thought or material (they may also bore a reader who wants to know primarily what YOU have to say on the subject).
  • Slide 6
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Indirect quotations are not exact wordings but rather rephrasings or summaries of another person's words. In this case, it is not necessary to use quotation marks. However, indirect quotations still require proper citations, and you will be committing plagiarism if you fail to do so. Mr. Johnson, a local farmer, reported last night that he saw an alien spaceship on his own property. Many writers struggle with when to use direct quotations versus indirect quotations. Use the following tips to guide you in your choice. 1. Use direct quotations when the source material uses language that is particularly striking or notable. Martin Luther King Jr. believed that the end of slavery was important and of great hope to millions of slaves done horribly wrong. The above should never stand in for this unique talk: Martin Luther King Jr. said of the Emancipation Proclamation, "This momentous decree came as a great beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice."
  • Slide 7
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks 2. Use an indirect quotation (or paraphrase) when you merely need to summarize key incidents or details of the text. 3. Use direct quotations when the author you are quoting has coined a term unique to their research and relevant within your own paper. When to use direct quotes versus indirect quotes is ultimately a choice you'll learn a feeling for with experience. However, always try to have a sense for why you've chosen your quote. In other words, never put quotes in your paper simply because your teacher says, "You must use quotes."
  • Slide 8
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Quote length If the original quote is too long and you feel not all the words are necessary in your own paper, you may omit part of the quote. Replace the missing words with an ellipsis. Original Quote: The quarterback told the reporter, "It's quite simple. They played a better game, scored more points, and that's why we lost. Omitted Material: The quarterback told the reporter, "It's quite simple. They... scored more points, and that's why we lost." Make sure that the words you remove do not alter the basic meaning of the original quote in any way. Also ensure that the quote's integration and missing material still leave a grammatically correct sentence. Quote context If the context of your quote might be unclear, you may add a few words to provide clarity. Enclose the added material in brackets. The quarterback told the reporter, "It's quite simple. They [the other team] played a better game, scored more points, and that's why we lost."
  • Slide 9
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Quotations within a Quotation Use single quotation marks to enclose quotes within another quotation. The reporter told me, "When I interviewed the quarterback, he said they simply 'played a better game.'" Quotation Marks Beyond Quoting Quotation marks may additionally be used to indicate words used ironically or with some reservation. The great march of "progress" has left millions impoverished and hungry. Do not use quotation marks for words used as words themselves. In this case, you should use italics. The English word nuance comes from a Middle French word meaning "shades of color."
  • Slide 10
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Additional Punctuation Rules when Using Quotation Marks Use a comma to introduce a quotation after a standard dialogue tag, a brief introductory phrase or a dependant clause. The detective said, I am sure who performed the murder. As D. H. Nachas explains, The gestures used for greeting others differ greatly from one culture to another.
  • Slide 11
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Put commas and periods within quotation marks, except when a parenthetical reference follows. He said, I may forget your name, but I never forget a face. History is stained with blood spilled in the name of civilization. Mullen, criticizing the apparent inaction, writes, Donahue's policy was to do nothing (24).
  • Slide 12
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Place colons and semicolons outside closed quotation marks. Williams described the experiment as "a definitive step forward"; other scientists disagreed. Benedetto emphasizes three elements of what she calls her "Olympic journey": family support, personal commitment, and great coaching. Place a question mark or exclamation point within closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the quotation itself. Place the punctuation outside the closing quotation marks if the punctuation applies to the whole sentence. Phillip asked, "Do you need this book?" Does Dr. Lim always say to her students, "You must work harder"?
  • Slide 13
  • Guidelines for Using Quotation Marks Titles Use double quotation marks to enclose the titles of songs, short stories, essays, poems and articles: Softly, almost tenderly, Legree recited the lyrics to the song "She Made Toothpicks out of the Timber of My Heart." The first draft of my favorite E. B. White essay, "Once More to the Lake," was a letter that White wrote to his brother a week after their mother's death. Do not put quotation marks around the titles of books, newspapers or magazines; instead, italicize or underline those titles.
  • Slide 14
  • Quoting Do not quote too much! A particular quotation proves something is a common mistake students make. Unless there are data or statistical results, use different expressions, such as: suggestsimpliestestifies to indicatesargues (that, for)shows demonstratessupportsunderscores WRONG: This quotation proves that women encounter rampant discrimination in the workplace. RIGHT: Smith's comment suggests how much resistance women still face in the workplace.
  • Slide 15
  • Quoting Word-for-for accuracy Get the words right, even with mistakes! It can lead to an unclear quotation, so you can either [1] use brackets (only sparingly) or [2] introduce / explain. Halder does his argument no credit when he opines, "History shows that men are more intelligent then [sic] women" (34). I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves. (them/themselves???) 1. Mary Wollstonecraft does not wish to reverse the sexual balance of power, but to move from domination to autonomy: "I do not wish them [women] to have power over men; but over themselves" (156). 2. Mary Wollstonecraft wants women to strive for autonomy, not domination: "I do not wish them to have power over men; but over themselves" (156).
  • Slide 16
  • Quoting Introducing quotation Signal phrases and statements introduce quotations with a minimum of fuss but enough information to help the reader make sense of them. The Founders understood the new Constitution as "a republican remedy for the diseases most incident to republican government" (Madison 343). In Federalist 51 Madison observes, "Different interests necessarily exist in different classes of citizens" (345). Students often use weak or vague signal phrases: WRONG: Another point about sexual difference is made by Rubin. She says, "The human subject... is always either male or female" (171). RIGHT: Rubin questions whether unbiased kinship diagrams are even possible: "The human subject... is always either male or female" (171).
  • Slide 17
  • Quoting One common way to build signal phrases is with the According to x construction: According to W. C. Jordan, there were about 100,000 Jews in France in the middle of the 11th century (202). According to Rich, we need to be careful about the risk of "presentism," of projecting present meanings on past events (3). Another technique is to use clauses with the cited scholar as subject and a signaling verb to orient the quotation. Here are some variations on the basic signal phrase construction of author + verb (+ that): Rich warns us that we need to be careful about the risk of "presentism," of projecting present meanings on past events (3). Patterson reviews the legal limits placed on the murder of slaves (190-93). Depending on what you want your reader to know, you can provide all sorts of explanatory material in a signal phrase. Here, for instance, a writer identifies his sources' scholarly expertise in order to make the citation more persuasive: The economic historians Nathan Rosenberg and L. E. Birdsell note that in the early capitalist period (from the late fifteenth century on) people had to outgrow firms based on kinship and separate their personal finances from their firm's finances.... [A long quotation follows]
  • Slide 18
  • Quoting In all citation styles, when you wish to include long quotations (more than four lines), you should do so in set-off block format. Left-indent the set-off quotation an appropriate amount (often a half-inch) and prepare for it with a signal statement ending in a colon: Privacy, one observer suggests, is the cardinal virtue of the Dutch: Dutch citizens are proud of their country; they think well of it, and they want you to think well of it, but they do not necessarily want to unpack it, know all the details, sometimes tear the paper from the cracks, and reach independent judgments.... Never in the line of duty have I been bamboozled as in The Netherlands, where they all tell you different things, no one want to make a full disclosure and they will pick holes in any generalization you care to profess.... (Peter Lawrence, in Lawrence and Edwards 167) In his study of the budgeting practices of more than 400 U.S. firms, Unapathy found budget games and manipulation were widespread: Deferring a needed expenditure [was the budget game] used with the highest frequency.... Getting approvals after money was spent, shifting funds between accounts to avoid budget overruns, and employment of contract labor to avoid exceeding headcount limits are the other relatively popular games.... (90)
  • Slide 19
  • Quoting Note that a good signal statement often gives a quick summary of the quotation. Set-off quotations do's and don'ts: Use a complete statement, not a fragment, to signal the quotation. Punctuate the signal statement with a colon. Indent on the left (from a quarter-inch to an inch, depending on format and teacher requirements). Don't put quotation marks around the set-off quotation. Put a space after the quotation's terminal punctuation and then supply the parenthetical reference (note that this differs from punctuating short quotations).
  • Slide 20
  • Quoting WRONG Fombrum says, "A name essentially describes how a company is perceived on the outside. It signals to outside observers what a company stands for; the quality of its products. When the value-priced cosmetics maker Avon tried to improve its reputation by purchasing the prestige retailer Tiffany's in 1979, most doubted the wisdom of the move. That's why it came as no surprise when five years later Avon sold off the operation. Not only did owning Tiffany's fail to add luster to Avon, but negative publicity about Avon ownership was rapidly tarnishing Tiffany's reputation (Fombrum 42)." RIGHT Names can be highly valuable business assets: A name essentially describes how a company is perceived on the outside. It signals to outside observers what a company stands for; the quality of its products. When the value-priced cosmetics maker Avon tried to improve its reputation by purchasing the prestige retailer Tiffany's in 1979, most doubted the wisdom of the move. That's why it came as no surprise when fi...

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