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Advances Advances in in Phytoplankton Phytoplankton Pigment Pigment Mapping Mapping in in Spanish Spanish Reservoirs Reservoirs Pe Pe ñ ñ a a - - Mart Mart í í nez nez , Ram , Ram ó ó n n , , Ruiz Ruiz - - Verd Verd ú ú , Antonio , Antonio , , Dom Dom í í nguez nguez - - G G ó ó mez mez , Jos , Jos é é Antonio Antonio Centro de Estudios Hidrogr Centro de Estudios Hidrogr á á ficos del CEDEX. SPAIN ficos del CEDEX. SPAIN

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LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 11111111

AdvancesAdvances in in PhytoplanktonPhytoplankton PigmentPigment

MappingMapping in in SpanishSpanish ReservoirsReservoirs

PePeññaa--MartMartííneznez, Ram, Ramóónn, , RuizRuiz--VerdVerdúú, Antonio, Antonio, ,

DomDomííngueznguez--GGóómezmez, Jos, Joséé AntonioAntonio

Centro de Estudios HidrogrCentro de Estudios Hidrográáficos del CEDEX. SPAINficos del CEDEX. SPAIN

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 22222222

Summary and results

ESA Project AO-594

“Development of an Operational System for direct Thematic

Mapping of Photosynthetic Pigments in Lakes using MERIS.

Application to the Spanish reservoirs”.

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 33333333

INITIAL OBJECTIVES

• Developing models for the retrieval of photosynthetic

pigment concentrations in Spanish reservoirs using MERIS

• Thematic mapping for water quality monitoring

� Eutrophication assessment

� Harmful algal bloom detection

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 44444444

WHY REMOTE SENSING?

•More than 1,300 reservoirs in Spain

• Scarcely studied

• Previous experience with Landsat and airborne sensors

E. de Guadalhorce

E. de Guadalteba

E. de Conde de Guadalhorce

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 55555555

WHY MERIS?

• Adecquate bands for phytoplankton mapping

• Good spatial coverage and temporal resolution

• Spatial resolution good enough for the 120 biggest

reservoirs

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 66666666

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 77777777

MODEL DEVELOPMENT

1. LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS:

• Small group. No background in optical measurements

• Difficulties for obtaining reliable measurements of IOP’s

• No previous database of AOP’s and pigment data (big

effort in sampling campaigns)

• Spanish Reservoir characteristics

� wide range of chlorophyll-a concentrations (0–700 mg m-3)

� Low CDOM (rapid turnover and mineralisaton)

� Variable SM concentrations (normally low in big reservoirs)

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 88888888

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 99999999

MODEL DEVELOPMENT

2. ACHIEVEMENTS:

• Empirical model for chlorophyll-a

� Based on the ratio of MERIS bands 9 and 7

� Acceptable accuracy for eutrophication monitoring

• Empirical model for phycocyanin (cyanobacterial marker)

� Based on the ratio of MERIS bands 9 and 6

� Acceptable accuracy for bloom monitoring

• Ongoing validation of semi-analytical model for

phycocyanin (Simis et alli, L&O 2005)

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1010101010101010

Development of an empirical model for chl-a

y = 21,137x2 + 10,445x - 9,6838

R2 = 0,9158

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

MERIS 9 / MERIS 7

chl-

a (m

g m

-3)

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1111111111111111

Development of an empirical model for chl-a

y = 21,137x2 + 10,445x - 9,6838

R2 = 0,9158

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0 0,5 1 1,5 2 2,5 3

MERIS 9 / MERIS 7

chl-

a (m

g m

-3)

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1212121212121212

validation with field data

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

0 100 200 300 400 500 600

chl-a predicted

ch

l-a

me

as

ure

dRMSE = 22.24

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1313131313131313

validation with field data

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

0 20 40 60 80 100

chl-a predicted

ch

l-a

me

as

ure

dRMSE = 13.36

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1414141414141414

Development of an empirical model for phycocyanin

y = 200,63x - 131,86

R2 = 0,842

0

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

MERIS 9 / MERIS 6

PC

(m

g m

-3)

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1515151515151515

validation with field data

0

50

100

150

200

250

300

350

400

0 100 200 300 400

PC predicted

PC

me

as

ure

dRMSE = 35.72

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1616161616161616

VALIDATION OF MODELS IN MERIS IMAGERY

1. LIMITATIONS AND CONSTRAINTS:

• Lack of a reliable atmospheric correction

� Current approach based on ATCOR (not fully

satisfactory)

•Water masking

� Based on the ratio of MERIS bands 14 and 5

� Very good results

• Adjacency effects (minimised after water masking)

• Difficulties for getting match-ups

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1717171717171717

VALIDATION OF MODELS IN MERIS IMAGERY

2. ACHIEVEMENTS:

• Up to 50 images processed (2003-2005)

• Pending validation, but already useful:

� In the developing of a web-based monitoring system

� For detecting temporal trends (e.g. Evaluation of the

effects of the current drought in water quality)

• Validation with CHRIS/Proba in Rosarito reservoir

� Up to 12 images in 2004

� Good model performance (results presented this year in

CHRIS/Proba workshop)

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1818181818181818

Examples of thematic maps

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 1919191919191919

Enlarged area

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2020202020202020

ValdecaValdecaññasas reservoirreservoir. 18. 18--0606--20032003

Mapa de Concentración de Clorofila-a

Mapa de Concentración de Ficocianina

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 >255 mg·m-3

20

ChlorophyllChlorophyll--a a concentrationconcentration mapmap

PhycocyaninPhycocyanin concentrationconcentration mapmap

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2121212121212121

SantillanaSantillana reservoirreservoir. 09. 09--0404--20042004

21

ChlorophyllChlorophyll--a a concentrationconcentration mapmap

PhycocyaninPhycocyanin concentrationconcentration mapmap

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 >255 mg·m-3

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2222222222222222

NavalcNavalcáánn reservoirreservoir. 30. 30-- 0101--20052005

Mapa de Concentración de Clorofila-a

Mapa de Concentración de Ficocianina

ChlorophyllChlorophyll--a a concentrationconcentration mapmap

PhycocyaninPhycocyanin concentrationconcentration mapmap

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 >255 mg·m-3

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2323232323232323

Water quality monitoring reports

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2424242424242424LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg 1414141414141414167167167167167167167167

EMBALSE DE ALMENDRA 24.08.04

Datos del embalse-Volumen de agua embalsada:

- 2404 hm3 (93,0%)

X0,7910,842,118.06.04

X0,7722,761,810.07.04

X0,8114,323,824.08.04

Todas

Tran

sparen

cia

Ficocian

ina

Clorofila a

Variable

Fecha

MAPAS TEMÁTICOS OBTENIDOS MEDIANTE

TELEDETECCIÓN ESPACIAL

Otros datos del embalseOtros datos limnológicosOtros vínculos

Sensor: Sensor: MERISMERIS

OPERATIONAL SYSTEM TO PRODUCE AND TRANSFER THEMATIC OPERATIONAL SYSTEM TO PRODUCE AND TRANSFER THEMATIC MAPS FROM MERIS IMAGERY TO WATER MANAGEMENT AND MAPS FROM MERIS IMAGERY TO WATER MANAGEMENT AND

PUBLIC INFORMATION PUBLIC INFORMATION

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg Blg 1414141414141414167167167167167167167167

EMBALSE DE ALMENDRA 24.08.04

Concentración de ficocianina:- Media: 14,3- Máxima: 55,3- Mínima: 11,2

Datos del embalse-Volumen de agua embalsada:

- 2404 hm3 (93,0%)

GRÁFICO DE EVOLUCIÓN

0

5

10

15

20

25

18.06.04 10.07.04 24.08.04

FECHA

[FIC

OC

IAN

INA

]

X0,7910,842,118.06.04

X0,7722,761,810.07.04

X0,8114,323,824.08.04

Todas

Tran

sparen

cia

Ficocian

ina

Clorofila a

Variable

Fecha

MAPAS TEMÁTICOS OBTENIDOS MEDIANTE

TELEDETECCIÓN ESPACIAL

Otros datos del embalseOtros datos limnológicosOtros vínculos

Sensor: Sensor: MERISMERIS

G RÁF IC O DE E V O L UC IÓ N

0

5

10

15

20

25

18.06.04 10.07.04 24.08.04

FECHA

[FIC

OC

IAN

INA

]

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2525252525252525

Monitoring of drought effects on eutrophication

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2626262626262626

Alcántara 1 y 2

0

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100

1-6-2003

1-8-2003

1-10-2003

1-12-2003

1-2-2004

1-4-2004

1-6-2004

1-8-2004

1-10-2004

1-12-2004

1-2-2005

1-4-2005

1-6-2005

1-8-2005

Vol (% Volumen Máxim

o)

0

50

100

150

200

250

Vol Cla]

Clorofila a (mg/m

3)

Alcántara

45,57

91,93

63,9166,69

69,4672,37

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

90,00

100,00

29

-01

-03

28

-06

-03

25

-11

-03

23

-04

-04

20

-09

-04

17

-02

-05

17

-07

-05

14

-12

-05

2003 2004 2005

% V M.E.

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

90,00

100,00

I.E.T. Carlson%V m IET

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2727272727272727

Sau

0

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100

1-6-2003

1-8-2003

1-10-2003

1-12-2003

1-2-2004

1-4-2004

1-6-2004

1-8-2004

1-10-2004

1-12-2004

1-2-2005

1-4-2005

1-6-2005

1-8-2005

Vol (% Volumen Máximo)

0

5

10

15

20

25

Vol [Cla]

Clorofila a (mg/m

3)

Sau

54,29

63,20

80,42

53,19 54,0057,17

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

90,00

100,00

29-

01

-03

28-

06

-03

25-

11

-03

23-

04

-04

20-

09

-04

17-

02

-05

17-

07

-05

14-

12

-05

2003 2004 2005

% V M.E.

0,00

10,00

20,00

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70,00

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90,00

100,00

I.E.T. Carlson%V m IET

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2828282828282828

Susqueda

0

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100

1-6-2003

1-8-2003

1-10-2003

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1-4-2004

1-6-2004

1-8-2004

1-10-2004

1-12-2004

1-2-2005

1-4-2005

1-6-2005

1-8-2005

Vol (% Volumen Máximo)

0

2

4

6

8

10

12

14

Vol [Cla]

Clorofila a (mg/m

3)

Susqueda

90,0988,29

36,05

50,37 51,0055,76

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

90,00

100,00

29-

01

-03

28-

06

-03

25-

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-03

23-

04

-04

20-

09

-04

17-

02

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17-

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-05

14-

12

-05

2003 2004 2005

% V M.E.

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

90,00

100,00

I.E.T. Carlson%V m IET

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 2929292929292929

Pintado

0

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100

1-6-2003

1-8-2003

1-10-2003

1-12-2003

1-2-2004

1-4-2004

1-6-2004

1-8-2004

1-10-2004

1-12-2004

1-2-2005

1-4-2005

1-6-2005

1-8-2005

Vol (% Volumen Máximo)

0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Vol [Cla]

Clorofila a (mg/m

3)

Pintado

59,56

81,22 81,46

53,67 54,12

60,54

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

80,00

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100,00

29-

01

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-03

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-03

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-05

2003 2004 2005

% V M.E.

0,00

10,00

20,00

30,00

40,00

50,00

60,00

70,00

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100,00

I.E.T. Carlson%V m IET

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 3030303030303030

USE OF CHRISUSE OF CHRISUSE OF CHRIS---PROBA IMAGERY FOR PROBA IMAGERY FOR PROBA IMAGERY FOR IMPROVING MERIS PIGMENT FITS IN IMPROVING MERIS PIGMENT FITS IN IMPROVING MERIS PIGMENT FITS IN

ROSARITOROSARITOROSARITO RESERVOIR (2004)RESERVOIR (2004)RESERVOIR (2004)

OBJECTIVESOBJECTIVES::

•• ProvingProving thethe usefulnessusefulness ofof CHRIS CHRIS WaterWater BandsBands forfor thethe monitoringmonitoring ofofphytoplanktonphytoplankton in in inlandinland waterswaters, , especiallyespecially cyanobacteriacyanobacteria

•• UsingUsing Rosarito as a Rosarito as a testtest sitesite forfor applyingapplying empiricalempirical modelsmodels forfor pigmentpigmentdetectiondetection, , developeddeveloped forfor MERIS, in CHRIS MERIS, in CHRIS imageryimagery

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 3131313131313131

Validation in CHRIS/Proba imagery

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 32323232323232320 20 60 100 140 180 220 >250 mg m-3

Chlorophyll-a concentration 20/05/04

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 3333333333333333

EVOLUTION OF MEASURED AND ESTIMATED CHLOROPHYLL-A (SAMPLING POINT B )

0

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100

22/04/2004 22/05/2004 21/06/2004 21/07/2004 20/08/2004 19/09/2004 19/10/2004 18/11/2004

DATE

CH

L-a

(m

g m

-3)

MEASURED CHL-a

ESTIMATED CHL-a

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 34343434343434340 20 60 100 140 180 220 >250 mg m-3

Phycocyanin concentration 20/05/04

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 3535353535353535

EVOLUTION OF MEASURED AND ESTIMATED PHYCOCYANIN (SAMPLING POINT B )

0

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300

350

22/04/2004 22/05/2004 21/06/2004 21/07/2004 20/08/2004 19/09/2004 19/10/2004 18/11/2004

DATE

PC

(m

g m

-3)

MEASURED PC

ESTIMATED PC

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 3636363636363636

FINAL SUGGESTIONS

• An atmospheric correction algorithm for inland waters is still

needed

• Image delivery could be improved:

• An ftp downloading system would be faster and cheaper

than current CD-based delivery

LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep LAKES 29 sep BlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlgBlg 1414141414141414167 167 167 167 167 167 167 167 3737373737373737

AdvancesAdvances in in PhytoplanktonPhytoplankton PigmentPigment

MappingMapping in in SpanishSpanish ReservoirsReservoirs

PePeññaa--MartMartííneznez, Ram, Ramóónn, , RuizRuiz--VerdVerdúú, Antonio, , Antonio,

DomDomííngueznguez--GGóómezmez, Jos, Joséé AntonioAntonio

Centro de Estudios HidrogrCentro de Estudios Hidrográáficos del CEDEX. SPAINficos del CEDEX. SPAIN