Adulteration and substitution in endangered ASU medicinal ... A faq, 1999). Medicinal plants constitute an ... pends on medicinal herbs and/or indigenous sys-57 ... Types of Adulterants presence in ASU Herb-

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<ul><li><p>Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants, ISSN 2249 4340REVIEW ARTICLE</p><p>Vol. 4, No. 1, pp. 56-73, March 2014</p><p>*Corresponding author: (E-mail) pawansagar92 yahoo.com http://www.openaccessscience.com 2014 Copyright by the Authors, licensee Open Access Science Research Publisher. ijmap@openaccessscience.comThis is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported (CC BY-NC-ND 3.0) License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0)</p><p>Adulteration and substitution in endangered ASU medicinal plants ofIndia: A ReviewSagar Pawan KUMAR</p><p>R.O. (Chemistry), Scientist, DSRU.I/c., DSRU., Central Research Institute of Unani Medicines (CCRUM.,AYUSH.), Pharmacy, Hyderabad - 500 038, A.P., India</p><p>*Corresponding author: Tel: +91 09848736978.</p><p>Article History: Received 19th September 2013, Revised 17th January 2014, Accepted 24th January 2014.</p><p>Abstract: Medicinal plants used in Indian System of Medicines (ISM) ASU (Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani) as Indiantraditional source form of alternative medicine. In 20th and 21th century generations are becoming aware of side effectsand adverse reactions of synthetic drugs, so there is an increasing interest in ASU. Adulteration and substitution of en-dangered ASU herbs is the burning problem in herbal pharmacy and pharmaceutical industry and it has caused a majortreat in the research and development on commercial natural products. The deforestation and extinction of many speciesand incorrect identification intestinally or unintentionally of many rare, endangered and original herbal plants has result-ed in adulteration and substitution of raw drugs. The future research and development of the Pharmacognostic and Phyto-chemical analysis of herbs is largely depended upon reliable methodologies for correct identification, standardization andquality assurance, quality control of ASU. herbal drugs.</p><p>Keywords: Adulteration; Substitution; ASU (Ayurveda, Siddha and Unani); ISM (Indian System of Medicines); Medici-nal plants.</p><p>Introduction</p><p>Adulteration it is a practice of substitutingthe original crude drug partially or fully withother substances which is either free from orinferior in therapeutic and chemical propertiesor addition of low grade or spoiled or spuriousdrugs or entirely different drug similar to that oforiginal drug substituted with an intention ofenhancement of profits (Kokate et al., 2007). Aadulteration may also be defined as mixing orsubstituting the original drug material with otherspurious, inferior, defective, spoiled, uselessother parts of same or different plant or harmfulsubstances or drug which do not confirm withthe authenticated official standards. A drug shallbe deemed to be adulterated if it consists, inwhole or in part, of any filthy, putrid or decom-posed substance (Anonymous, 2003). A treatisepublished two centuries ago (in 1820) on adul-terations in food and culinary materials is aproof for this practice as an age-old one. Due toadulteration, faith in herbal drugs has declined(Dubey et al., 2004). Adulteration in market</p><p>samples is one of the greatest drawbacks inpromotion of herbal products. Many researchershave contributed in checking adulterations andauthenticating them (Tewari et al., 1991;Vasudevan et al., 1983; Bisset et al., 1983;Sunita, 1992; Uniyal et al., 1993; Sarin et al.,1996; Gupta, 2003). It is invariably found thatthe adverse event or side effects reports are notdue to the intended herb, but rather due to thepresence of an unintended herb (De Smet et al.,1992). Medicinal plant dealers have discoveredthe scientific methods in creating adulteration ofsuch a high quality that without microscopic,phytochemical and physicochemical analysis, itis very difficult to trace these adulterations(Afaq, 1999). Medicinal plants constitute aneffective source of traditional (e.g., Ayurvedic,Chinese, Homeopathy and Unani) and modernmedicine. Herbal medicine has been shown tohave genuine utility. Germany and France, to-gether represent 45% of the $23 billion globalretail market as per current expect 2013 year. InIndia, about 80% of the rural population de-pends on medicinal herbs and/or indigenous sys-</p><p>http://www.openaccessscience.commailto:ijmap@openaccessscience.comhttp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0</p></li><li><p>57Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants Adulteration and substitution in endangered ASU medicinal plants</p><p>Kumar http://www.openaccessscience.comijmap@openaccessscience.com</p><p>tems of medicine. In fact today, approximately70% of synthetic medicines are derived fromplants. Popularity among the common peopleincreased the usage of medicinal plants/herbaldrugs. Herbal adulteration is one of the commonmalpractices in herbal raw material trade (Mitraet al., 2007; Shah et al., 2010).</p><p>Materials and methods</p><p>Complete Information about the plant ofAdulteration and Substitution in endangers,original Ayurvedic Siddha Unani ASU. Indianmedicinal plants (Actual confirmation of PlantOccurrence, Hearbesting, Cultivation, Authenti-cated plant species and family, photographs etc,)were collected Source from standard , authen-ticated online world encyclopaedia, High alti-tude medicinal plants Archie and flora onlineGoogle searching engine or authenticated text,Wealth of India 1948-1976 (CSIR.) and authen-ticated literature survey by the scientific help ofbotanical, taxonomists expertise researchers ofResearch council (ISM., AYUSH.) and an ex-tensive, authenticated literature survey. Adulter-ation and Substitution in medicinal plants byvarious reported authorities (Kokate et al., 2007;Dubcy, 2004; Tewari, 1991; Vasudevan, 1983;Sunita, 1992; Uniyal, 1993; Sarin, 1996;Saraswathy, 2001; Gupta, 2003; Afaq, 1999;Sarin, 1996; Mishra et al., 2002; Shastri, 2005;Mukhrjee, 2002; Pandeya, 1997; Chunekar,2004; Poornima, 2010; Roy et al., 2013) foridentification and conformity of endangers,original Herbs adulteration and substitution ap-pearance found in various plant, species natural-ly growing in Himachal and Nothen Himalayanhigher altitude from 1200 to 4500 m asl. hillvalleys and dense forest areas of Himachal andUttarakhand state, various region of India. Se-lective and reported plant species were con-firmed and identified with the help of standardflora, standard Ayurvedic and Unani pharmaco-poeia Govt. of India, various reported volume inpart Ist. Single drugs, Standard connected textbooks authenticated references, noted were pre-pared on their morphological attributes (Shahand Seth, 2010; Chouhan, 1999; Tahir et al.,2007; Krishnamurthi et al., 1969; Rastogi et al.,1998; Angers et al., 1996; Rehman et al., 2011).</p><p>Types of Adulterants presence in ASU Herb-al drugs</p><p>Drugs are generally adulterated or substitut-ed with substandard, inferior or artificial drugs.</p><p>Using substandard commercial varieties</p><p>Adulterants resemble the original crude drugmorphologically, chemically, therapeutically butare sub standard in nature and cheaper in cost.This is the most common type of adulteration(Kokate et al., 2007; Dubey et al., 2004).</p><p>Using superficially similar inferior drugs</p><p>Inferior drugs may or may not have anychemical or therapeutic value. They resembleonly morphologically, so due to its resemblancethey are used as adulterants (Kokate et al.,2007).</p><p>Using artificially manufactured substance</p><p>The drug is adulterated with the substancewhich has been prepared artificially. The artifi-cially manufactured substance resembles theoriginal drug. This method is followed for thecostlier drugs (Kokate et al., 2007).</p><p>Using exhausted drug</p><p>The same drug is admixed but that drug isdevoid of medicinally active substance as it hasbeen extracted already. Mainly volatile oil con-taining drugs like clove, coriander, fennel, car-away are adulterated by this method. As it isdevoid of colour and taste due to extraction,natural colour and taste is manipulated with ad-ditives, describe and mention in related Tables 3&amp; 4 respectively.</p><p>Using of synthetic chemicals to enhance naturalcharacter</p><p>Synthetic chemicals are used to enhancenatural character of the exhausted drug. Exam-ples: citral is added to citrus oils like lemon andorange oils describe and mention in related Ta-bles 3 &amp; 4 respectively.</p><p>http://www.openaccessscience.commailto:ijmap@openaccessscience.com</p></li><li><p>58Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants Adulteration and substitution in endangered ASU medicinal plants</p><p>Kumar http://www.openaccessscience.comijmap@openaccessscience.com</p><p>Presence of vegetative matter of same plant</p><p>Some miniature plants growing along withthe medicinal plants are added due to their col-our, odour, and constituents (Kokate et al.,2007).</p><p>Harmful adulterants</p><p>Some harmful materials as the adulterant,are collected from market waste materials andadmixed with the drug. It is done for the liquiddrugs (Kokate et al., 2007).</p><p>Adulteration of powders</p><p>The drugs which are in the form of powdersare frequently adulterated. Such as dextrin isadded in ipecacuanha, exhausted ginger in gin-ger, red sandal and white sandal wood in redand white capsicum powder and powdered barkadulterated with brick powder etc (Kokate et al.,2007).</p><p>Reason of adulteration of ASU Herbal drugs</p><p>Confusion in vernacular names</p><p>In Ayurveda, Parpatta refers to Fumariaparviflora. In Siddha, Parpadagam refers toMollugo pentaphylla. Owing to the similarity inthe names in traditional systems of medicine,these two herbs are often interchanged or adul-terated or substituted. Because of the popularityof Siddha medicine in some parts of South In-dia, traders in these regions supply Mollugopentaphylla as Parpatta/Parpadaga and theNorth Indian suppliers supply F. parviflora.These two can be easily identified by the pres-ence of pale yellow to mild brown colored, thinwiry stems and small simple leaves of Mollugopentaphylla and black to dark brown colored,digitate leaves with narrow segments of F.parviflora. Casuarina equisetifolia for Tamarixindica and Aerva lanata for Berginia ciliata aresome other example for adulterations due toconfusion in names (Mitra et al., 2007).</p><p>Lack of knowledge about authentic source</p><p>Nagakesar is one of the important drugs inAyurveda. The authentic source is Mesuaferrea. However, market samples are adulterat-ed with flowers of Calophyllum inophyllum.Though the authentic plant is available in plentythroughout the Western Ghats and parts of Hi-machal or J&amp;K State, Himalayas valleys, sup-pliers are unaware of it. There may also be somerestrictions in forest collection. Due to thesereasons, C. inophyllum (which founds in thelower altitude) is sold as Nagakesar. Authenticflowers can be easily identified by the presenceof two-celled ovary whereas in case of spuriousflowers they are single celled (Mitra et al.,2007).</p><p>Similarity in morphology</p><p>Mucuna pruriens is adulterated with othersimilar Papilionaceae seeds having similarity inmorphology. M. utilis (sold as white variety)and M. deeringiana (sold as bigger variety) arepopular adulterants. Apart from this M.cochinchinensis, Canavalia virosa and C.ensiformis are also sold in Indian markets. Au-thentic seeds are up to 1 cm in length with shin-ing mosaic pattern of black and brown color ontheir surface. M. deeringiana and M. utilis arebigger (1.5-2 cm) in size. While M. deeringianais dull black and M. utilis is white or buff col-ored (Mitra et al., 2007).</p><p>Lack of authentic plant</p><p>Hypericum perforatum is cultivated and soldin European markets. In India, availability ofthis species is very limited. However, the abun-dant Indo-Nepal species H. patulum, sold in thename of H. perforatum. Market sample is awhole plant with flowers and it is easy to identi-fy them taxonomically. Anatomically, trans-verse section of H. perforatum stem has com-pressed thin phloem, hollow pith and absence ofcalcium oxalate crystals. Whereas H. patulumhas broader phloem, partially hollow pith andpresence of calcium oxalate crystals (Mitra etal., 2007).</p><p>http://www.openaccessscience.commailto:ijmap@openaccessscience.com</p></li><li><p>59Int. J. Med. Arom. Plants Adulteration and substitution in endangered ASU medicinal plants</p><p>Kumar http://www.openaccessscience.comijmap@openaccessscience.com</p><p>Similarity in color</p><p>It is well known that with course of time,drug materials get changed to or substitutedwith other plant species. Ratanjot is a recentday example. According to the suppliers andnon-timer forest product (NTFP) contractors, inthe past, roots of Ventilago madraspatana werecollected from Western Ghats, as the onlysource of Ratanjot. However, that has not beenpracticed now. It is clearly known that Arnebiaeuchroma var euchroma is the present source.Similarity is in yielding a red dye, A. Euchromasubstitutes V. madraspatana. Recently V.madraspatana is not found in market. Whateveris available in the market, in the name ofRatanjot is originated from A. euchroma (Mitraet al., 2007).</p><p>Careless collections</p><p>Some of the herbal adulterations are due tothe carelessness of herbal collectors and suppli-ers. Parmelia perlata is used in Ayurveda,Unani and Siddha. It is also used as grocery.Market samples showed it to be admixed withother species (P. perforata and P. cirrhata).Sometimes, Usnea sp. is also mixed with them.Authentic plants can be identified by theirthallus nature (Mitra et al., 2007).</p><p>Unknown reasons</p><p>Vidari is another example of unknown au-thentic plant. It is an important Ayurvedic plantused extensively. Its authentic source isPueraria tuberosa and its substitute is Ipomoeadigitata. However, market samples are not de-rived from these two. It is interesting to knowthat an endangered gymnosperm Cycascircinalis is sold in plenty as Vidari. The adul-terated materials originated from Kerala, India.Though both the authentic plant and its substi-tute are available in plenty throughout India,how C. circinalis became a major source for thisdrug is unknown. P. tuberosa can be easilyidentified by the presence of papery flake liketubers and I. digitata by the presence of its con-centric rings of vascular bundles and their adul-terant C. circinalis by its leaf scars and absenceof vessel elements (Mitra et al., 2007).</p><p>Need for Substitution</p><p>Non-availability of the drug: Substitution forAshtvarga part (group of 8 crude drugs - Riddhior Vriddhi, Kakoli, Kshirakakoli, Jibhaka,Rsabhaka, Meda and Meha meda),these endan-gers and rare drugs are found in high altitudearea from 2000 to above 4000 m asl in Hima-chal and Himalaya northan valleys. Uncertainidentity of the drug, for the herb Lakshmana dif-ferent species such as Arlia quinquefolia,Ipomea sepiaria etc are considered. Cost of thedrug, Kumkuma or Keser, KumKum, Zafran(Crocus sativus) largely used in Unani com-pound formulation being costly herb is substi-tuted by Kusumbha or Kusum (Carthamustinctorius) and White, Red Sander wood adul-terated by White and Red Capsicum powder,Geographical distribution of the drug, Rasna(Pluchea lanceolata) is used in Northern Indiawhile in southeren parts Alpinia galanga is con-sidered as the source. The adverse reaction ofthe drug, Vasa is a well known Rakta-Pittahara(cures bleeding disorder) drug,...</p></li></ul>