abc's of filtration & bioprocessing

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  • EDITORS

    Harold W. Ballew

    F. Jesus Martinez

    Cassidy Markee

    Roy T. Eddleman

    CONTRIBUTORS

    Harold W. Ballew

    Dennis Clark

    Geoff Crooks, Ph.D.

    Sa V. Ho, Ph.D.

    Cassidy Markee

    F. Jesus Martinez

    David Milner, Ph.D.

    Jason Partee

    James Simmons

    SPECTRUM America and Asia Pacific

    18617 Broadwick StreetRancho Dominguez, CA 90220-6435USA

    voice310-885-4600 (worldwide)800-634-3300 (US & Canada only)6 am to 5 pm PST

    fax310-885-4666 (worldwide)800-445-7330 (US & Canada only)

    e-mailcustomerservice@spectrumlabs.com

    web www.spectrumlabs.com

    SPECTRUM Europe

    Post Office Box 32624800 DG BredaThe Netherlands

    voice 00 31 76 5719 4198 am to 5 pm

    fax00 31 76 5719 772

    e-mailspectrumeurope@spectrumlabs.com

    web www.spectrumlabs.com

    THE ABC s OF FILTRATION AND BIOPROCESSINGFOR THE THIRD MILLENNIUM

  • about this book...

    ...and

    Spectrum has published The ABCs of Filtration and Bioprocessing for the Third Millenniumto assist in the understanding and development of the most efficient methods for separat-ing and bioprocessing liquids and gases using hollow fiber membrane technology.

    Founded in 1970, Spectrum is a global leader in selected markets for hollow fiber and tubu-lar membrane separation products that are used by research laboratories and biotechnol-ogy and pharmaceutical companies worldwide.

    Hollow fiber separation is a dominant technology in various applications as demonstratedby its success in hemodialysis, blood gas exchange and pharmaceutical filtration. That hol-low fiber filtration and separation is the modality of choice is also subscribed to by such wellknown institutions as SRI International, National Institute of Standards and Technology(NIST), large pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies and millions of hemodialysispatients around the globe. Spectrum is forecasting that many applications where mem-branes are used to separate, isolate and purify liquids and gases will upgrade to the per-formance and economy of scale of hollow fiber technology.

    FILTRATION AND BIOPROCESSING

    Spectrum has developed and patented a new generation of hollow fiber configurations thatgreatly minimize membrane fouling and improves the filtration efficiencies of hollow fibermodules by at least an order of magnitude. These products and technology will lower thecost of membrane bioprocessing of aqueous streams by fifty percent when compared toexisting products.

    SELECTIVE MOLECULAR EXTRACTION

    Spectrum has developed and acquired a novel class of membranes for the selective extrac-tion, concentration and recovery of organic compounds from dilute aqueous solutions. Thisnovel class of polymeric liquid membrane technology will have significant application toimproving the taste and flavor of beer and wine, water remediation by the extraction ofVOCs from aqueous streams and the extraction and separation of industrial compoundssuch as butanol, ethanol, acetic acid and others. Research indicates that this technologyreduces the requirement for processing energy by a significant degree when compared toexisting competitive technologies.

    MODULAR, MULTI-PHASE HOLLOW FIBER TECHNOLOGY

    Spectrum is a pioneer in the development of modular, multi-phase hollow fiber technologywhere three independent membrane compartments, within the same modular structure,provide unique means of efficient triple streams processing of aqueous or non-aqueoussolutions. This unique multi-compartment module can be used for: mammalian cell expan-sion in bioreactors; to separate blood formed elements simultaneously in parallel streamsand in foods and beverages.

    We welcome your inquiry.

  • p ii THE ABCs OF FILTRATION AND BIOPROCESSING FOR THE THIRD MILLENNIUM

    2002, Spectrum Laboratories, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from:

    Spectrum Laboratories, Inc, 18617 Broadwick Street, Rancho Dominguez, CA 90220

    Book Design and Illustrations: Jim Mingin

    jimminginTypewritten Text420-11345-000 Rev. 01 - 121907

    jimminginTypewritten Text

    jimminginTypewritten Text

    jimminginTypewritten Text

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  • Section A: THE ABCs of FILTRATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1

    INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Depth Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1Screen Filters (Mesh) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2Membrane Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .3The Nature of Particles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .4Retention Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .5Plugging Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .6Fundamentals of Flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .7Tangential (Cross Flow) Filtration vs. Dead End Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .9Membrane Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10Range of Filtration, Bioprocessing and Selection of Spectrums Membranes . . . . . . .12Volume of Liquid Processed Based on Module Type . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12Dialysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Electrodialysis (ED) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13Reverse Osmosis (RO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14Selective Gas Permeable (Permselective) Membranes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15Polymeric Membrane Extractions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16Integrity Testing of Membrane Filters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .17

    TANGENTIAL (CROSS FLOW) HOLLOW FIBER MODULE ULTRAFILTRATION . . . . . . . . . . .19Retentivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .19MWCO Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20Selectivity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Adsorption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Temperature and Chemical Resistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Filtration Rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Concentration Polarization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .21Other Factors Affecting Membrane Flow Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .24Diafiltration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .26

    TANGENTIAL (CROSS FLOW) HOLLOW FIBER MODULE MICROFILTRATION . . . . . . . . . .29

    FILTRATION MODES (CONFIGURATIONS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Membrane and Module Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31Tangential (Cross Flow) Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .33Tangential Flow Membrane Technology using Hollow Fibers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Spectrum Hollow Fiber Membrane Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35Scalability of Hollow Fiber Filtration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .36Sterilization of Spectrum Membrane Modules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .41Modes of Operation of Hollow Fiber Filtration Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42Extended Module Throughput by Forward, Reverse and Back Flushing . . . . . . . . . .44

    MICROFILTRATION APPLICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Cold Sterilization of Fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Testing for Microorganisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Clinical and General Laboratory Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Cleaning of Particles and Clarification of Liquids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .46Cell, Bacteria and Virus Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    p iiiTHE ABCs OF FILTRATION AND BIOPROCESSING FOR THE THIRD MILLENNIUM

  • TABLE OF CONTENTS

    p iv THE ABCs OF FILTRATION AND BIOPROCESSING FOR THE THIRD MILLENNIUM

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