A Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption in South African Government
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DESCRIPTIONTechnology adoption is always a critical concern in organizations (private and public). South African government experienced this encounter when adopted Open Source Software (OSS) with the objective to reduce ICT services costs among others. The implementation of OSS in SA government has faced several challenges such as user resistance, human factor, support and funding. As a result of these challenges cost reduction has not been fully achieved. Cost reduction issue ultimately affects implementation of other government programmes such as those who yields job creation, better education, and improving health, etc. The potential alternative to address the same objective as aimed by OSS is Cloud Computing adoption. Cloud Computing promise to offer the SA government more advantages OSS. This study explore the feasibility of Cloud Computing adoption as an alternative to enable cost reduction, effectiveness and efficient of IT services in SA government as was aimed by OSS initiative.
<ul><li>1.International Conference on Business Management & Information Systems, 2013A Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption in South African Government: A Case of Department of Social Development Simon Motlatsi Maluleka and Nkqubela Ruxwana Business Information Systems, Tshwane University of Technology, Pretoria, South Africa E-mail: email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.orgABSTRACT Technology adoption is always a critical concern in organizations (private and public). South African government experienced this encounter when adopted Open Source Software (OSS) with the objective to reduce ICT services costs among others. The implementation of OSS in SA government has faced several challenges such as user resistance, human factor, support and funding. As a result of these challenges cost reduction has not been fully achieved. Cost reduction issue ultimately affects implementation of other government programmes such as those who yields job creation, better education, and improving health, etc. The potential alternative to address the same objective as aimed by OSS is Cloud Computing adoption. Cloud Computing promise to offer the SA government more advantages OSS. This study explore the feasibility of Cloud Computing adoption as an alternative to enable cost reduction, effectiveness and efficient of IT services in SA government as was aimed by OSS initiative. To achieve this purpose, the study applied different methods and techniques such as the case study research approach. The data was collected using semi-structured interviews and closeended questionnaires techniques. The Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) theory was the underpinning theoretical framework. Key findings were that Cloud Computing promise to reduce ICT cost, effective and efficient. The study also recommended Cloud Computing be adopted in SA government as a cost effective approach for ICT services. Keywords: Adoption, Cloud computing, Open source software, Innovation, GovernmentINTRODUCTION The adoption of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) solutions brings about several potentials for most organisations (both public and private), such as enabling efficiency, effectiveness, and gaining and sustaining the competitive edge . With higher acquisition and</li></ul><p>2. A Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption in South African Government89maintenance costs being the common barriers of ICT exploitation by government organisations, and other developing organisations, it resulted to several developments of ICT solutions that promised to reduce the total cost and to enable access and wider adoption of ICT solutions. In South African government Open Source Software (OSS) was one of such adopted cost reduction ICT initiatives. The South African government then attempted to implement OSS to replace traditional proprietary software to achieve several objectives such as software cost reduction and speeding up technological advancement. However, these objectives have not been achieved to a great extent. To attest the implementation of OSS, ,  mentioned that the implementation of OSS has numerous challenges which includes support, funding, training, awareness and human factor which result in the unsuccessful implementation of OSS in SA government. As a result, only about 35% of government departments utilize OSS, in certain aspects of their business operations . This shows that OSS implementation is failing and negatively impacting on the initial objectives aimed to achieve. Therefore, SA government needs to consider Cloud Computing as an alternative solution to achieve cost reduction objective and other benefits that will add value and be more competitive. Cloud Computing can provide primary contribution to promote growth and competitive which it help the economy of the country. It is used as a mechanism to avoid large up-front costs and hardware/software spending . Cloud Computing frees customers from the expense of having to install and maintain applications locally . It is thus important to investigate adoption of Cloud Computing in SA government as a cost reduction approach and how it will promote growth and competition in government. This study therefore is of the view that Cloud Computing initiative can easily be implemented and can even add more economic value than that of OSS. In concurrence,  also asserts that cloud technology can give organisation significant opportunities for agility and cost reduction. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to explore how Cloud Computing can be adopted as an alternative to enable cost reduction, effectiveness and efficiency of ICT services in SA government as was aimed by OSS initiative. LITERATURE REVIEW The Notion of Cloud Computing Definition Define Cloud Computing in five principles which are:  Pooled computing resources that is centralized to easy user accessibility Virtualized computing resources Flexible scaling based on the user requirements Resource usage charged per use Customized according to user needsCloud Computing is therefore a model that has a pool of resources that are abstracted and have a centralised (virtual) point for convenient user access. 3. 90Recent Trends in Business Management and Information SystemsFig. 1: NIST Cloud Computing ModelFigure 1 above illustrates three cloud computing dimensions, deployment models, service models. CLOUD COMPUTING DEPLOYMENT MODELS Deployment model provide a cloud purpose and how cloud is located. There are four different deployment models, Public Cloud, Private Cloud, Hybrid Cloud and Community Cloud . These models help to express how infrastructure will be deployed. Public cloud is a set of hardware, networking, storage, applications and interface owned and operated by a third party for use by cloud consumer . Private cloud is a set of hardware, networking, storage, services, applications and interface owned and operated by an organisation for the use of its employees, partners and customers . Hybrid cloud is a model when the organisation decides to combine both public and private cloud, thus service of public and private clouds are joint) , . Community Cloud model is also known as vertical cloud, it caters to a group of organisations with a common set of requirements or objectives . Not everyone in the organisation have access to community cloud. This model is dedicated to a specific community within the organisation e.g. Community of Practice in the organization  CLOUD COMPUTING SERVICE MODELS Service models explain different types of services the cloud provides. There are three service types universally accepted which are Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS) and Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) . Each service model provides a specific business need. Software as a Service (SaaS) SaaS is the way cloud users are first introduced to the cloud because is designed to implement a specific business process. Most business users are found that SaaS represent a more cost effective, flexible and secure alternative to traditional on-premises applications . SaaS is the highest level model of abstraction as applications are delivered over network   . 4. A Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption in South African Government91Platform as a Service (PaaS) PaaS is an abstracted and integrated cloud based environment that supports the development, running and management of applications. Application components may exist in a cloud environment or may integrate with applications managed in private clouds or in data centres. The value of PaaS environment is that developers dont have to be concerned with some of the lower-level details of the environment . The diagram below illustrate the relationship between PaaS, SaaS and IaaS.Fig. 2: Software Stack as a PyramidFigure 2 above illustrate that IaaS is at the fundamental level and includes capabilities such as operating systems, networks, storage and virtual machines. SaaS is at the top of the pyramid representing the actual applications offered to the users while PaaS is in the middle which includes services for developing and deploying applications . PaaS is the next level of abstraction which do abstraction on application infrastructure services, e.g. access control, etc. . This is a service where the cloud consumer purchase application environment on top of the infrastructure. Application environment such as Java, DB2, etc.  Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS) IaaS is the simplest of cloud offerings as it is an evolution of virtual private server offerings and provides a mechanism to take advantage of hardware and other physical resources without any capital investment or physical administrative requirements . IaaS provides a visualization of infrastructure (hardware, storage, network, etc) and other resources that clients can run   . CLOUD COMPUTING CHARACTERISTICS According to , ,  basic characteristics of Cloud Computing are: On-demand self service Broad network access Measured service 5. 92Recent Trends in Business Management and Information Systems Rapid elasticity, and Resource polling. On-demand Self Service On-demand self-service is a process when a consumer with an instantaneous need within a particular period can make computing resources like Central Processing Unit (CPU), network storage, software use, etc. available in a convenient time for the consumer without resting to human interaction with providers of the human interactions with providers of the resources . Broad Network Access Broad network access is the process when delivery of computing resources are done over a network and have the privilege to be used by different client applications with heterogeneous platforms hosted at the consumers site . Location independence and high levels of resilience allow for an always-connected user experience . Measure Service Measure service is a mechanism used to measure and control the allocated resource usage per individual consumer using metering capabilities . This ability enables cost reductions because it you pay for the service you use pay-as-you-go model and there is no contract or premium fee payable  . Rapid Elasticity This is the amount of service offered by the cloud provider which can be scaled up and down to ensure that the amount of service can be purchased when required and monitored (measure service) . Cloud users will only pay for resources as and when there is a demand . Resource Pooling The process when the service provider (computing resources) uses multi-tenant model to pool, assign and re-assign consumer demands . Resources include network bandwidth, storage, processing, memory, etc., the resources will be shared among subscribed cloud users  . BENEFITS OF CLOUD COMPUTING Cloud Computing can significantly improve IT services in public sector . Cloud Computing benefits are classified into efficiency, agility and innovation. Some of the benefits offered by Cloud Computing in the government are economic scale, flexibility, rapid implementation, consistent service, increase effectiveness and energy efficient . Economic Scale Cloud Computing can cut out upfront or reduce capital expenditure as a result then reduce IT administrative burden . Cloud Computing does not require lot of capital investment. Use 6. A Framework for Cloud Computing Adoption in South African Government93pay-as-you-use approach which you pay only for the services used . The department will move from capital expenditure to operational expenditure . Provide significant cost saving in the real estate required for data centre as well as power and cooling costs . Flexibility Cloud Computing increase flexibility because of on-demand computing across technologies and reduced solution implementation times. There is no need to secure additional hardware and software as can add or subtract capacity as based on the demand and pay for only what is used . According to  moving ICT services to cloud, organisations can utilise resources more efficient and effective. Rapid Implementation Cloud Computing does not require to procure hardware, software licenses or implementation services and certification process. Cloud Computing also help execution of projects within the required time frame . In order to implement Cloud Computing, the department will need a staged implementation in which they deploy parts of the overall plan in phases . It is important to examine what need to be done, who will do it, when will it be done and how will it be done . Consistent Service Cloud Computing offer higher level service which is reliable and provide immediate response to emergency situations. The user can use variety of computer devices including portable devices. Network outage is sent to IT department for response . Cloud functionality is usually available as a service of some form while there is a great variance in the nature of these services . Increased Effectiveness Cloud Computing enhance IT services to be more agile and effectiveness. It further allows government to use IT investment in a more innovative way and makes it easier adoption by both public and private sector . Cloud Computing have the ability to deploy, configure and provision new resources without manual interventions. Applications deployed to cloud can provision themselves . Energy Efficient Cloud Computing promise to decrease energy consumption of storage and communication. This will reduce increasing energy costs and cloud can be an inherently energy efficient technology for IT services. It provides the energy usage methods and technologies for energy efficient operation of hardware and network infrastructure . CLOUD COMPUTING CHALLENGES As much as Cloud Computing can offer uncountable benefits, it has some challenges. According to  major challenges faced by Cloud Computing adoption in government are: the need for 7. 94Recent Trends in Business Management and Information Systemsscalability, reliability, securing data in the cloud, open standards and interoperability, revise procurement practices, resolve potential legal issues, regulate the cloud market, redefine the roles of the IT workforce, assess the Return on Investment (ROI) of Cloud Computing and government cloud coordination.  state that issues faced with Cloud Computing adoption are: outage, security, performance, compliance, private clouds integration and cost. Figure 3 represent IDC survey (quoted by ,  regarding Cloud Computing adoption concerns for ranking challenges/issues attributed to the cloud model. Security is on top of the list.Fig. 3: IDC Cloud Computing Adoption Challenges (Quoted by Rittinghouse & Ransome, 2010; Rosenberg & Mateos, 2011)The question on everyones mind regarding Cloud Computing Is cloud computing secure? Security is a difficult factor to quantify. Privacy and securit...</p>
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