96/06239 photovoltaics — bridging the gap between industry and market

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  • 07 Abmetive energy sources (solar energy)

    96106225 Observation and explanation of quantum efficlen- cles exceedlng unlty In amorphous alllcon solar cells Vanmaekelbergh, D. e1 al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Jun. 1996, 41, 537-542. The experimental observation of internal uantum efficiencies above unit

    % in crystalline silicon solar cells has broug t up the question whether the generation of multiple electron/hole pairs has to be taken into consideration also in solar cells based on direct gap amorphous semiconductors.

    96lO6228 On the diffuse fractlon of dally and monthly global radlatlon for the Island of Cyprus Jacovides, C. P. et aL, Solar Energy, Jun. 1996, 56, (a), 565-572. Six years of hourly global and diffuse irradiation measurements on a hori- zontal surface performed at Athalassa, Cyprus, are used to establish a relationship between the daily diffuse fraction and the daily clearness index. Two types of correlations - yearly and seasonal - have been developed.

    96106227 On the way to creating system of dlatant power supply for apace vehlclea Pr&iakov, V.-F. et a& Solar Energy, Jan. 1996, 56, (1), 97-109. Using power resources of the outer space and its industrialization have become an urgent task in the development of present da

    r civilization. Solar

    energy is the most suitable basis for power supply or the majority of uroiects in the near-Barth soace. Passing on to the lame-scale soace-based aysiems of power supply requires put&g into life dimonstration experi- ments in which power transmission b

    r electromagnetic emission is sup-

    posed. In this paper the expedience o developing an autonomous power module which provides the possibility of space programs with great power consumption and wireless transmission system running-up is proved.

    i%::: Performance analysis of photovoltalc thermal alr

    Sopian, K et a& Energy Convers. Mgmt., Nov. 1996, 37, (ll), 1657.1670. The performance of single-pass and double-pass combined photovoltaic thermal collectors are analyzed with steady-state models. The working fluid is air and the models are based on energy conservation at various nodes of the collector. Closed form solutions have been obtained for the differential equations of both the single-pass and double-pass collectors. Comparisons are made between the performances of the two types of com- bined photovoltaic thermal collectors. The results show that the new design, the double-pass photovoltaic thermal collector, has superior .r- formance. Important parameters for both types of collector are identl led, and their effects on the performance of the two types of collectors are presented in detail.

    96lO6234 Performance analysla of solar three-heat-reaervolr cooling systems Wu, C. et aL, EnerD Cowers. Mgmr., Nov. 1996, 37, (ll), 1671-1676. The optimum performance of a solar three-heat-reservoirc&ling system, which consists of a solar collector and a three-heat-reservoir cooler, was studied. The analvsis is based on the linear fconventional and/or conduc- tive) and radiative: heat transfer models of solar collectors and the general optimum characteristics of endoreversible three-heat-reservoir coolers with Newtons and liner phenomenological heat transfer laws between the working fluid and the reservoirs of the coolers.

    96106226 Optlmlzatlon and management of a solar refrlgera- tlon plant using latent storage Adnene, C. and Ahmed, D. Solar Energy, Jun. 1996, 56, (6), 535-541. In a previous article, the authors presented the model, the responses, and the parameters of a solar refrigeration plant using a battery storage BSS. The measurements collected on the BSS system in laboratory and rural sites (stand alone PV plant) at different chmatic conditions have shown some problems coming from the battery and its regulator, such as mainte- nance, replacement, break-down and the limited battery life period. In order to surmount these problems, they thought of substituting the electric storaee bv a thermal or a latent storage L.SS (accumulation of ice in a separate ~shction). To have a good predyction, optimal control and dimen- sions of the LSS system, they developed a simulation program SIREF by using an acquisition/treatment environment.

    96106235 Photocatalytlc degradatlon of phenol: Comparlson between pllot-plant-scale and laboratory results Curco, D. et al., Solar Energy, May 1996, 56, (5), 387-400. The photocatalytic oxidation of phenol, using TiO, suspensions, has been studied at pilot-plant-scale with solar radiation, at the Plataforma Solar de Almeria (PSA), Spain, and at the laboratory level with Xe lamps, with the University of Barcelona. Two different reactor designs were tested at the PSA: a high concentrating radiation systems (Heliomans) and a low con- centrating radiation systems. Both were characterized from the point of view of the radiation field. The factor relating the solar radiation arriving at the radiation entering the photoreactors have been determined.

    96106236 Photovoltalc module certlflcatlon and laboratory accredltatlon crlterla development Osterwald, C. R. er al., Solar Energy Materials & Solar Cells, Jun. 1996, 41, 629-636. The paper presents an overview of a model product certification and test laboratory accreditation programme for photovoltaic modules that was recently developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and Ari- zona State Universitv. The soecific obiective of this nroiect was to oroduce a document that dettls the kquipmeni, facilities, qdaliiy assuranc6 proce- dures, and technical expertise an accredited laboratory needs for perform- ance and qualification testing of PV modules, along with the specific tests need for a module design to be certified.

    96106237 Photovoltalc panel-generator based autonomous power source for small refrlgeratlon unlta Kattakayam, T. A. and Srinivasan, K. Solar Energy, Jun. 1996, 56, (6), 543-552.

    96106229 Optlmum collector temperature for solar heat anglnea Chen, L. er al., Int. J. Amb. Energy, Apr. 1996, 17, (2), 73078. Describes four solar collector models for a solar heat engine designed to function either at its maximum possible efficiency or at its maximum pos- sible output power. Present the results, which provide the basis for design- ing a real solar heat engine.

    :t;;;zo Parametric study of a solar pond for Northern

    ALJamal, K and Khashan, S. Energy Oct. 1996, 21, (lo), 939-946. A mathematical model is developed to determine the various affecting the performance of a salt-gradient solar pond (S e

    arameters SP). The

    authors use the finite difference method for solution. Monthly average meteorological data for the Irbid region are used. The results indicate that the thickness of the non-convection zone has a significant effect on the storage-zone temperature. The optimum value of this thickness is found to be one meter. Storage-temperature fluctuations due to weather changes may be minimized by increasing the thickness of the storage zone. This resilt may also be achieved by assuming that the rate of heat extraction is proportional to the intensity of the incoming solar radiation.

    The article describes an autonomous power source for a domestic refrigera- tion unit which is powered by a field of photovoltaic panels backed-up by a generator set. Salient design features and results from some of the tests on the unit are presented.

    96106236 Photovoltalc roof tiles for commercial bulldlngs sl~;f;r, D. S. and Dinwoodie, T. L. Solur Today, Jul.-Aug. 1996, 10, (4),

    Describes how new solar electric roof tiles serve as high-value roofing materials as well as a clean source of electricity.

    96106239 and market

    Photovoltalcs - Brldglng the gap between Industry

    Gunaratne, L. Solar Today, Jul.-Aug. 1996, 10, (4), p. 46. 961D6231 Pasalve solar elements and heatlng systems Papadopoulos, M. et a& Bauphysik, Apr. 1996, 18, (2), 33-39. (In German) Discusses the experiences gained during four years evaluation of Europes largest solar system a sive solar systems an B

    plication, in Solar Village 3 in Athens. Seven pas- eight buildings have been studied concerning their

    performan&, the thermal behaviou;of the buildings, comfort conditions and influence of the occupants of the systems.

    96106232 Pasalve solar, country-style Miller, B. Solcrr Toduy, Jul.-Aug. 1996, 10, (4), 26-29. Describes how a North Carolina couple built an energy-conserving, money-saving dream home in North Carolina.

    Discusses the photovoltaics-industry \;hich is at a &s;oads. The industry, which has been more donor-driven than market-led,, now needs to focus on developing commercial markets. The most significant market for photovoltaics lies in the developing countries, but the industry is located in the western hemisphere.

    96106240 Potentlal and development posslbllltles of blvalent heatlna avstema Brach-&&es, C. and Karbach, A. Heiz. Luj. Haustech., Jun. 1996, 47, (6), 39-41. (In German) Reviews solar heating installations supplementing central heating and domestic hot water systems in buildings. Discusses the optimisation, including an examination of the effect of the size of the system compo- nents, the hydraulic control and the control strategies.

    440 Fuel and Energy Abstracts November 1996