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    From Autonomous to Cooperative

    Distributed Monitoring and Control:

    Towards the Internet of SmartSmart Things

    ERCIM Workshop on eMobilityTampere, 30 May 2008

    Dr. Jorge Pereira

    European Commission - DG INFSOEmbedded and Control Systems

    The opinions herein are those of the author, and in no way commit the European Commission

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop2

    The Internet of Things

    The Internet of Things, ITU Report,November 2005

    Machine-to-machinecommunications and person-to-computer communications will be

    extended to things, from everydayhousehold objects to sensorsmonitoring the movement of theGolden Gate Bridge or detecting earthtremors.

    Everything from tyres to toothbrusheswill fall within communicationsrange, heralding the dawn of a newera.

    technologies that will drive thefuture Internet of Things, includingradio-frequency identification(RFID), sensor technologies, smartthings and nanotechnology andminiaturization

    In the context of

    ubiquitous computing

    next-generation networks

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop3

    The Internet of Things The vast majority of the one billion of Internet connections

    worldwide are devices used directly by humans, such as computersand mobile handsets. But we are entering a new age in which thenumber of "things" connected to the internet will be much largerthan the number of "people". The term "Internet of Things"describes the vision of pervasive and "hidden" computing in whichIP-connected devices will be embedded in the environment allaround us. The key technological drivers behind the Internet ofThings are likely to be radio-frequency identification (RFID),sensors, nanotechnology and intelligent systems.

    The Internet of Things requires us to view cyberspace in a differentway. It is always-connected, responsive, adaptive and, above all,omnipresent in all aspects of our lives. The technology is here, butthere is a challenge to build new business models and applicationsthat will exploit the new capabilities.

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop4

    Trends 1

    Embedded Intelligence: PERVASIVE

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop7

    Avionics E.g., inertial guidance systems, flight control

    hardware/software and other integrated systems in

    aircraft and missiles

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop8

    Artificial Limbs

    Artificial arms withsemi-functional hands,some even fitted with

    working opposablethumbs plus 2fingers, and legs withshock absorbing feetcapable of allowing atrained patient to evenrun, have becomeavailable

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop9

    Cochlear Implant Improvement of the

    ability to interact

    socially

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop10

    Embedded Shoes

    Adidas produced microprocessor-equipped running shoes, thatcan adapt to a runner's size, speed and fatigue level.

    At MIT, researchers developed shoes that do everything fromproviding gait therapy to generating powerfor wearableelectronics.

    Adding embedded intelligence to a running shoe solves alongstanding problem: ever since running gained widespreadpopularity during the 1970s, shoe manufacturers have beensearching for a way to create an adaptable shoe that couldprovide the appropriate level of cushioning, whether the wearerweighed 50 or 100kg.

    The embedded microprocessor calculates the pressure betweenthe runner's foot and the ground five million times per second andcontinuously changes the cushioning to match an adjustablecomfort level. The computer controls a motor that lengthens andshortens a cable attached to a plastic cushioning element.

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop12

    Trends 2 Connectivity: IMPROVING

    increasingly wireless

    growing slower in some places

    with quite distinct grades of service

    broadband varies tremendously

    available wireless technologies

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop15

    Internet Growth

    Nothing as grown as fast

    still a lot to do!

    Starting to slow down

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop17

    Trends 3

    From Person-to-Person

    to Person-to-Machine

    to Machine-to-Machine

    A whole different meaning for handshake!

    to Things?

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop18

    Networking Everyone and Everything

    Appliances &

    Sensors/Actuators

    People &

    Avatars

    Places &

    Points of Interest

    Addressable

    everything

    JP

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop19

    Networking Everyone, Everything

    and Anything

    Appliances &

    Sensors/Actuators

    &

    Things

    People &

    Avatars

    Places &

    Points of Interest

    Addressableanything

    JP

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop20

    Factors of 10: the long-term

    1010 Cooperating Smart Things

    1011 Networked Smart Things

    1012 Smart Things

    1013 Things

    1014 Products

    1B

    10B

    100B

    1T10T

    100T

    The number of communicating data devices will grow from 2.4 bill ion

    [in 2004] to 23 billion in 2008 and one trillion by 2012

    Krishna Nathan, IBM Research, 2004

    versus 109 personal computers

    1010 mobile phones

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop21

    Only Tagging? The tag or transponder, which

    contains an electronic circuit(transponder) is attached to theobject that requires a uniqueidentification code. When thetag comes near the reader, theradio frequency (RF) fieldgenerated by the reader willpower up the tag and cause it tocontinuously transmit its data by'pulsing' the radio frequency.

    The data is then captured by thereader and processed in theback-end by applications likethe Enterprise ResourcePlanning (ERP) or Supply ChainManagement systems.

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop22

    Challenges 1: What for?

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop25

    Challenges 4: ConnectivityWhat Connectivity?

    Their level of connectivity will vary

    tremendously, the same with their

    requirements

    Most of the traffic will be peer-to-peer

    and remain rather local

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop26

    Trends 4

    Embedded Intelligence: PERVASIVE +

    NETWORKED!!!

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop27

    Nike iPod Sports Kit The wireless kit lets Nike's new Air

    Zoom Moire shoes send fitnessdata to the iPod Nano - via asensor tuck inside the running shoeand a small receiver that attachesto the Nano.

    As you run, the sensor recordsyour distance, time, pace and

    calories burned in real time anddisplays data on the Nano. At thepush of a button, audio feedback isdelivered through Nano's earbuds.

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop28

    Cooperative Vehicles

    SpeedYaw

    Engine

    Radar

    GPSNavigationSystem

    BrakepedalBrake

    SteeringAngle

    ESC

    Display

    Engine NavigationSystem

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop29

    Conclusion 1 Embedded systems are becoming ever more pervasive,

    permeating all things and everything: from (home) appliances

    to all sorts of electronic equipment/consumer electronics (videos,cameras, HiFi)

    to vehicles (cars, trains, ships, airplanes)

    to industrial, scientific and medical equipment (motor drivers,monitors)

    Miniaturisation (micro-systems, micro and nano-electronics) and development tools (middleware) andsystem management tools makes them cheaper,easier to integrate, and even more pervasive, infiltratingever more segments of the economy.

    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop30

    Conclusion 2

    As all this smart things become even smarter, theyincorporate enhanced sensing/monitoring andactuation capabilities and are getting increasinglynetworked. At that stage, the next step can be taken,

    that of moving from autonomous (non-networked, thusindividual) to cooperative (networked, local to global)optimisation/operation/control, and also fromhomogeneous to heterogeneous sensing/monitoringand control.

    As systems and processes become ever more complexand of increasing scale, this networked heterogeneity(and the ensuing data fusion, modelling, inference anddecision making) is the only means to address thecontrol problems that arise across the economy/society.

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    Dr. Jorge Pereira, EC ERCIM eMobility Workshop31

    Conclusion 3 In the end, we are talking of smart, networked