skin is called the cutaneous or integument skin has two regions the epidermis the dermis

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Page 1: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis
Page 2: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Skin is called the cutaneous or integument

Skin has two regions

The epidermisThe dermis

Page 3: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

EpidermisThe outer thinner region of the skin

Made up of stratified squamous epithelium

Divided into the stratum basale and the stratum corneum

Page 4: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

EpidermisStratum basale- just superior of the dermis

Langerhans cells- macrophages found deep in the epidermis that phagocytize microbes and simulate the immune system

Melanocytes- specialized cells in the deeper epidermis that produce melanin, responsible for skin color

Page 5: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

EpidermisStratum corneum- the uppermost layer of

the skin

Keratin- a fibrous, waterproof cell

Mechanical barrier against microbe invasion

Page 6: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Epidermis

Page 7: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

DermisA deeper and thicker region

Composed of dense irregular connective tissue

Dermal papillae causes ridges resulting in fingerprints

Contains collagenous and elastic fibers

Page 8: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Dermis

Collagenous fibers prevent skin from being torn and great resistance from over stretching

Elastic fibers allow movement but maintain normal skin tension

A deeper and thiker region

Page 9: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Dermis

Page 10: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Dermis

Decubitus ulcers- sore caused by a lacked of blood flow in a particular area that is restricted

Page 11: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hypodermis

Subcutaneous tissue Lies below the dermis Composed of loose connective tissue

including adipose

Page 12: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hair Found everywhere on the body except:

PalmsSolesLipsNipples

Page 13: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hirsutism: excessive body and facial hair

Page 14: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Alopecia- lack of hair or baldness

Page 15: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hair follicles:Are formed from epidermal cellsBut are located in the dermis

Root- portion of the hair found in the follicle

Shaft- portion of the hair found above the skin

Page 16: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hair follicles:Are formed from epidermal cellsBut are located in the dermis

Root- portion of the hair found in the follicle

Shaft- portion of the hair found above the skin

Page 17: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hair follicles:

Page 18: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Nails:From special epithelial cells at the base of

the nail called the nail rootNail body is the visible portion of the nailLunula is the whitish half moon shaped base

Page 19: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Glands: specialized cells that produce and secrete a substance into ducts

Page 20: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Sweat gland:Present in all skinTubularGlands are active under stress

Page 21: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Sweat gland:Apocrine glandOpen into hair

follicles In anal, groin, and

armpitsBegins secreting at

puberty

Page 22: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Sweat gland:Eccrine glandsOpen to surface of

the skinActive when a

person is hotContains water,

salts, urea, and waste

Page 23: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Sebaceous glandsAssociate with a hair follicleSecrete sebum : an oil substanceLubricates and waterproofs

Page 24: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Acne vulgarisMost common Inflammation of the sebaceous glands

Page 25: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Mammary glandsLocated in breastProduces milk

Page 26: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Athlete’s Foot: fungal infection of the toes and sole

Page 27: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Impetigo: highly contagious bacterial infection that results in pustules

Page 28: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Psoriasis: chronic condition, the skin is reddish pink patches covered by silver scales

Page 29: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Eczema: an inflammation of the skin caused by sensitivity

Page 30: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Cyanosis: condition in which the skin has a bluish tint caused by insufficient oxygen in the blood

Page 31: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Jaundice: yellowing of the skin caused by an accumulation of bilirubin

Page 32: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Albinism: loss of pigment in the skin creating patches of white skin

Page 33: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Freckles: melanin concentrated in local areas

Page 34: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Dandruff: flaking of the scalp due to accelerated keratinization

Page 35: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Uricaria: hive caused by an allergic reaction

Page 36: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Nonmelanoma: Basal cell carcinoma Most common Caused from UV exposure Signs are tumors, open sores, reddish

patches, smooth growths, shiny bumps or pale marks

Page 37: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Nonmelanoma: Basal cell carcinoma

Page 38: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Nonmelanoma: Squamous cell carcinoma

More like to spread Signs bleeding warts and scabs

Page 39: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Nonmelanoma: Squamous cell carcinoma

Page 40: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Squamous cell carcinoma

Basal cell

Page 41: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Melanoma: Starts as a mole Skin around mole turns colors Occurs mostly in fair skinned

individuals with a history of sunburns as a child

Page 42: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Melanoma:

Page 43: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Moles: due to an overgrowth of melanocyte

Page 44: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Warts: caused by a virus

Page 45: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

BurnsCaused by Chemicals, Radiation, and

HeatExtent of a burn is determined by the

“Rule of Nine”Classified by depth of the burn and the

extent of the burn

Page 46: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

First Degree BurnsOnly the epidermisReddness and pain,

no blistersSubside in 2-3 days

Page 47: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Second Degree BurnsOnly the epidermis and dermisReddness , pain, and blistersSubside in 10-14 days

Page 48: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Third Degree BurnsDestroys entire thickness of the skinLeathery surface of brown, black, tan,

white or redDestroyed nerves, blood vessels, glands,

and follicles

Page 49: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Third Degree Burns

Page 50: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Fourth Degree BurnsDestroyed down to boneLimited chance of survival

Page 51: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Major concerns with burns:Fluid lossHeat lossBacterial infections

Page 52: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

AutograftingGraft taken from another part of the

patients bodyPreferred method

HeterograftingGraft taken from another person

Page 53: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Skin Grafts

Page 54: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

EpidermisMaintain thickness but cell turnover

decreasesSkin is looser

Page 55: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

DermisThinnerFlattenedCollagenous fibers coarser, thicker, far

apartUpper layer lostDecrease in melanocytes

Page 56: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

HypodermisAdipose tissue decreases

Page 57: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Wrinkles caused by:Loose epidermisFibers are fewer and disorganizedLess padding

Page 58: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Functions of the skinProtective functionHelps regulate water lossProduces vitamin Regulates body temperatureGathers sensory information

Page 59: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hypothermia: Body temperature below normal

Characterized byUncontrolled shivering Incoherent speech Lack of coordinationProgresses to

pulse rate slowshallucinationsshallow breathingrigidity

Page 60: Skin is called the cutaneous or integument  Skin has two regions  The epidermis  The dermis

Hyperthermia: Body temperature above normal

Heat stroke- body temperature above 110 degrees F w/o sweating

Fever